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Isolation and characterization of plant associated rhizobacteria for plant growth promoting traits

Mst Julekha Khatun1, Atiqur Rahman2, Quazi Forhad Quadir2, Md Shafiul Islam Rion1, Md Zakir Hossen2

1Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, BANGLADESH
2Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Environmental Chemistry, Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, BANGLADESH

doi:                                                    pp: 95 – 106

The use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in sustainable and eco-friendly management of plant growth promoting is gaining importance over the previous decades around the world. In the current research work, the isolation of the rhizobacteria were done using nutrient agar media following standard protocol for isolation of bacteria. We have isolated and characterized 32 rhizobacterial isolates from five different plant species and subjected to N2-fixation, phosphorus solubilization and indole-3-acetic acid assay to identify potential PGPR. All the 32 rhizobacterial isolates showed at least one of the three major functionalities; viz. phosphorus solubilization, indole acetic acid production and N2 fixation; considered for selection of PGPR when tested in vitro. Among the 32 isolates, 15 produced clear halo zones surrounding their colonies indicating phosphate solubilization with variable intensities. Among the fifteen, six bacterial isolates having high phosphate solubilization index (PSI) proved to be efficient phosphorus solubilizer in liquid medium. The bacterial isolate MQ2 solubilized maximum (0.697 µg mL-1) phosphorus in liquid medium, followed by MQ3 and MQ1. Ten of the bacterial isolates were able to synthesize indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in L-tryptophan supplemented media at varying capacity. The isolate OSn8 produced highest amount (6.204 µg mL1) of IAA followed by MQ5 and OSbr6, while the lowest amount of IAA (1.268 µg mL1) was produced by MQ1. All the isolated bacteria were tested positive for putative N2-fixing ability with variation among the isolates as indicated by their growth in N2-free medium. Considering the all three tested functionalities, the isolate MQ1 proved to be the best candidate as potential biofertilizer development. A consortium of isolated rhizobacteria comprising the best isolates from each category could be constructed to provide the best benefit to crops for maintaining yield and quality while decreasing agrochemical inputs.

Keywords: Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), Phosphorus solubilization, Indole-3-acetic acid, nitrogen fixation

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Assessment of farmers’ perception on rice reaper in the haor region of Bangladesh

Muhammad Ashik-E-Rabbani1, A N M Arifur Rahman1, Md Samiul Basir1, Kaniz Tamanna1, Debashish Sarkar Dev2

1Department of Farm Power and Machinery, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, BANGLADESH
2DDepartment of Agricultural Extension Education, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, BANGLADESH

doi:                              pp: 86 – 94

This study was conducted to assess and identify the problems of handling reaper and their effects on the farmers’ adoption in the haor region of Kishore- ganj and Brahmanbaria district through personal interviews with a well- structured questionnaire and focus group discussion. Six different character- istics were selected namely, age, level of education, annual family income, farm size, access to information sources, and extent of machine used to study the adoption of reaper by 44 selected farmers. Results of statistical analysis with SPSS software indicated that education, access to information sources, and extent of different machinery use played a very significant role in the adoption of the reaper. It was found that the higher secondary educated re- spondents scored 11.43, the high extent of media contact respondents scored 14.57 and the medium extent of machinery users scored 8.65 in the case of measuring the satisfaction level within the range of −18 to +18. Based on data from the selected farmers, the result revealed that 82% of them were satisfied. This study also identified some constraints of reaper operation that were obtained from the respondents like slipping and skidding problems on muddy soil, problems in cutting over inclined crops, problems in cutting over flooded crops, problems in cutting over matured crops, etc. Some sug- gestions were made by the respondents for further improvement of reaper like wheel bit should be more ridge or iron wheel or plastic wheel should be used to overcome the slipping or skidding problem, a binding mechanism should be attached to save both time and labor.

Keywords: Adoption, haor, problems, reaper, satisfaction

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Effect of various phosphorus levels on growth and yield of chilli (Capsicum annuum) in Deukhuri, Dang of Nepal

Prakash Khanal , Prabin Chaudhary, Anil Adhikari, Madan Pandey, Shashi Subedi, Samikshya Acharya, Tej Prasad Sharma

Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Prithu Technical College, Lamahi, Dang Deukhuri, NEPAL

doi:                                                         pp: 78 – 85

Phosphorus affects the growth, development, maturity, earliness in flower- ing, fruiting and yield of chilli. The level and availability of phosphorus for chilli depend on the phosphorus already present in soil and climatic conditions. However, sufficient information is not available about the effect of various phosphorus levels on chilli production for the soil with a medium phosphorus level of the inner terai region of Nepal. Thus, the study was carried out to investigate the effect of various phosphorus levels on chilli on the soil having medium phosphorus at the Gadawa-4 Gangaparaspur of Deukhuri valley of the Dang district in 2018. The experiment consisted of six levels of phosphorus viz 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 kg P ha−1. The single factor experiment was laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. The highest plant height (60.22 cm), number of primary branches (9.60), yield per plant (123.20 g) and per hectare (9.15 t ha−1), and early 50% flowering (44.00 days) were recorded in 90 kg P ha−1. 60 kg P ha−1 showed the highest number of fruits per plant (60.22). The maximum fruit length (6.80 cm) was recorded at 120 kg P ha−1. The study concluded that a 90 kg P ha−1 showed superiority in terms of growth parameters and phenological parameter, yield per plant and per hectare. Therefore, a 90 kg P ha−1 could be used to get the highest yield of chilli for the soil with a medium phosphorus level of inner terai place like Deukhuri, Dang of Nepal

Keywords: Chilli, growth, phosphorus level, yield

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A cost efficiency analysis of boro rice production in Dinajpur district of Bangladesh

Md Shajedur Rahaman1, Sadika Haque2, Md Abdur Rouf Sarkar1, Chhiddikur Rahman1, Md Salim Reza2, Mohammad Ariful Islam1, Md Abu Bakr Siddique1

1Agricultural Economics Division, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur-1701,BANGLADESH
2Department of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Economics Rural Sociology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, BANGLADESH

doi:                                                         pp: 67 – 77

The size of the farm is an important factor that reflects the efficient utilization of resources in farming. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate how the farm size affects the cost efficiency of rice production during the Boro season in Bangladesh. In particular, the analysis aims to estimate the concentration of cost efficiency among the 240 small, medium, and large Boro rice growers sampled in the Dinajpur district. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the socioeconomic characteristics of rice farmers. A Cobb-Douglas type stochastic cost frontier model was employed to figure out how the rice farmers are cost-efficient. The sociodemographic factors that affect efficient investment in rice production also have been identified. The results of the study show a broad range of cost efficiency scores between 56.65 to 96.40% for the worse to the best rice-growing farmer, respectively with an average efficiency of 84.01%. The findings also show that the mean cost efficiency level of small, medium, and large farmers was 83.30, 85.58, and 94.43%, respectively. The land rental fees, human labor wages, irrigation prices, and pesticide prices are the key factors that contribute to the productivity of rice cultivation. The relatively higher level of cost efficiency among large farmers obviously demonstrates the notion that only large farmers in the study region are investing efficiently in rice growing. Irrespective of the farm size, the cost efficiency drivers found out that more efficient were the farmers who had more experience in farming, obtained training on rice production techniques, and better access to institutional credit. It is therefore recommended that rice farmers should be well trained, provided credit access along with developing rural set-up, and also provide extension services in order to increase the cost efficiency levels in Boro season.

Keywords: Cost effective, rice, farm size, stochastic frontier analysis, Bangladesh

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Assessment of rice genotypes for susceptibility to sheath blight disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IA

Shiwarttan Kumar Gupt1, Khem Raj Pant1, Roshan Basnet1, Mathura Yadhav1,Bisheshwor Prasad Pandey1, Biswash Raj Bastola2

1National Wheat Research Program, Bhairahawa, Rupandehi, NEPAL

2National Rice Research Program, Hardinath, Dhanusha, NEPAL

doi:                                              pp: 57 – 66

Rice crop endures several biotic stresses among which sheath blight is one of the devastating diseases. This disease is caused by necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia solani AG1 IA that reduces 20 to 40% yield. Forty two diverse rice genotypes were evaluated against sheath blight under artificial epiphytotic condition in the field of National Wheat Research Program Bhairahawa, Nepal during the year 2019. Four disease variables viz. PDLI (Percent diseased leaf incidence), PDTI (Percent diseased tiller incidence), PRCHI (Percent relative collar height infection), and AUDPC (Area under disease progress curve) were considered for evaluation of genotypes. Out of forty two genotypes Sabitri, GSR 310 and Hardinath-3 were found moderately resistant with mean AUDPC values 217.99, 252.78 and 214.67 per day re- spectively. Furthermore IR 15D 110, Pant-1, NR 2152-23-1-2-1-1-1-1 and IR 82635-B-B-114-3 were found moderately susceptible with mean AUDPC values 438.48, 445.55, 421.81 and 437.59 respectively. Moderately resistant genotypes viz. Sabitri, GSR 310 and Hardinath-3 had PDLI range 30.98- 31.67, PDTI range 10.56-15 and PRCHI range 9.01-28.64 whereas moderately susceptible genotypes IR 15D 110, Pant-1, NR 2152-23-1-2-1-1-1-1 and IR 82635-B-B-114-3 had PDLI range 31.25-51.29, PDTI range 25.82-38.75 and PRCHI range 22.18-45.8. Disease variables PDLI, PDTI and PRCHI were positively and significantly correlated with AUDPC with correlation coefficient value 0.75, 0.65 and 0.62, respectively. Moderately resistant rice genotypes found in this study could be evaluated for yield potential and its stability across different geographical region of Nepal and could be a good alternative against sheath blight diseases for Nepalese farmers.

Keywords: Evaluation, rice genotype, sheath blight, Rhizoctonia solani, disease

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Effects of disinfectants on bacterial load in a commercial fish hatchery in Mymensingh district of Bangladesh

Md Ali Reza Faruk1, Fariaz Islam2, Ishrat Zahan Anka3

1 Department of Aquaculture, Bangladesh Agricultural Universality, Mymensingh-2202, BANGLADESH.
2 Alltech Bangladesh, Uttara, Dhaka, BANGLADESH.
3 Department of Aquaculture, Chattogram Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chattogram -4225, BANGLADESH

doi:                                                    pp: 50 – 56

The study was conducted to investigate the effects of four chemical disinfectants viz., salt (NaCl), lime, formalin and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) on bacterial loads in water, eggs and fries in a commercial fish hatchery at Trishal upazila in Mymensingh district. Sampling was done in every10 days interval for each month from March to May 2016. Hatching trays (12″x7″) were disinfected using 40 ppm salt water and 20 ppm potassium permanganate. Cisterns (84 ft2 each) were washed and disinfected with combination of lime (5 g/ft2) and salt (30 g/ft2) followed by application of potassium permanganate (1 ppm) and formalin (0.25 ppm). After disinfecting, bacterial load in hatching tray water reduced immediately than that of overhead tank water. Bacterial load was determined using serial dilution technique and expressed as colony forming unit (cfu/ml). The average highest bacterial load in overhead tank water was 4.89±1.71×107cfu/ml while the highest load in hatching tray water was 3.30±3.54×106 cfu/ml. The bacterial load of cistern water (1.43±0.75×103 cfu/ml) decreased compared to tank water and gradually increased after six days of giving hormone treated feed. To prevent infection of eggs saline water was applied and lower bacterial load of 4.25±2.67×102 cfu/ml was observed. The study revealed that use of chemical disinfectants in the initial stages of hatchery operation can decrease the bacterial load and thus reduces the chance of infection and diseases of eggs and fry.

Keywords: Disinfectants, tilapia, hatchery, bacterial load

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Morphological, biochemical and molecular identification of the wild strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens from crown gall infected mango tree

Mst. Lailatul Ferdous, Md. Najmul Hossain, Md. Osman Ali, Md. Shahidul Islam, Sabina Yasmin

Department of Biotechnology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, BANGLADESH

doi:                                                        pp: 43 – 49

Crown gall is one of the destructive diseases that is considered to be of great economic impact due to the significant losses in mango and other stone fruit tree nurseries. The plant pathogen that causes crown gall is Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The present study was conducted to isolate and identify Agrobacterium tumefaciens from crown gall samples. These samples were collected from BAU campus, Mymensingh. The bacterium was isolated and characterized by morphological, microscopic, biochemical and confirmed by molecular test. The morphological, microscopic and biochemical tests initially revealed that all the bacterial isolates are gram negative. Pathogenicity test: a carrot disc bioassay showed tumors in the plant because T-DNA of the bacteria was transferred and integrated into each of carrot disc. Antibiotic sensitivity tests revealed that the resistance to antibiotic. Moreover, DNA was isolated from infected tissue and after gel electrophoresis of PCR product, DNA band with expected 184bp was found and therefore, it was finally confirmed that the isolates were A. tumefaciens. Therefore, morphological, biochemical and PCR-based rapid detection techniques could effectively be used to detect the nature’s best genetic engineer, A. tumifaciens causing crown gall disease.

Keywords: Disease, bacterium, confirmation, mango tree

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Development and evaluation of solar powered manually operated sprayer cum grasscutter

Milufarzana1, Golam Saklain Jim1, Selina Banu1, Md Rakib Hasan2, Anisur Rahman2

1Department of Agricultural and Industrial Engineering, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, BANGLADESH
2Department of Farm Power and Machinery, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, BANGLADESH

doi:                                    pp: 35 – 42

Spraying of pesticides and cutting grasses is an essential task in the agricul- tural sector to protect the crops from insects for obtaining high yield. In this study, a solar-powered sprayer cum grasscutter was developed and used solar energy as a power source for spraying and cutting grasses. The total fabrication cost of the solar-powered sprayer cum grasscutter was Tk 12550. The application rate of the sprayer was 281.25 L ha−1, with spray coverage of 46.7%. The theoretical and effective field capacity of sprayer cum grasscutter was found of 0.08 ha hr−1 and 0.06 ha hr−1, respectively. The field efficiency of solar-powered sprayer cum grasscutter was found of 75%, for an average of 2.1 km hr−1 operating speed. This research observed that cutting efficiency was 79%. The operating cost of the machine was 903.17 Tk ha−1. The capi- tal recovery factor, capital consumption and annual cost of solar-powered sprayer cum grasscutter were 0.26, Tk 3062, and Tk 43352, respectively. The solar-powered sprayer cum grasscutter is free from pollution because no fuel is needed. The price of the machine is low as compared to others, which are available in the market.

Keywords: Sprayer, grasscutter, solar-powered, machine performance, sprayer cum grasscutter

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Primary metabolites, phenolics content and antioxidant activities of Hydrocotyle bonariensis and Centella asiatica

Zainol Haida1, Mahmood Maziah2, Mansor Hakiman1

1Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, MALAYSIA
2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, MALAYSIA

doi:                                                            pp: 27 – 34

Hydrocotyle bonariensis or locally known as” Pegaga Embun,” is a creeping herb from the family Araliaceae. H. bonariensis is closely related to Centella asiatica (Apiaceae), which is commonly known as “Pegaga Kampung” due to their morphological characteristics. In most studies on phytochemical properties, C. asiatica is more popular than H. bonariensis. Extensive studies have been conducted on the phytochemical and biological activities of C. asiatica; however, a minimal study has been conducted on H. bonariensis. Hence, this study was carried out to compare the primary metabolites, phenolics content, and antioxidant activities of the fresh and dry samples of H. bonariensis and C. asiatica. All the analyses were conducted via in vitro assay and were measured using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The highest total soluble protein and ascorbic acid content were produced by the fresh sample of C. asiatica with 23.28 mg protein/ g FW and 0.35 mg ascorbic acid/g FW and H. bonariensis fresh sample produced 2.80 mg protein/g FW and 0.34 mg ascorbic acid/g FW, respectively. Meanwhile, the highest total reducing sugar and hydrolyzed sugar were recorded from the fresh sample of H. bonariensis with 1.94 mg reducing sugar/g FW and 3.84 mg hydrolyzed sugar/g FW, respectively. In the phenolics content analysis, the highest total phenolics and flavonoids were exhibited by fresh H. bonariensis with 0.96 mg GAE/g and 13.79 mg CE/g DW (dry weight), respectively. Furthermore, the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition was recorded from the fresh sample of C. asiatica with 91%, and the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) value was recorded from the fresh sample of C. asiatica with 66.75 mg TE/g FW. In conclusion, H. bonariensis showed high potential in bioactive compound production and as a source of antioxidants. Hence, an extensive study on H. bonariensis should be conducted to increase the medicinal values of H. bonariensis.

Keywords: Primary metabolites; secondary metabolites; antioxidant; Hydrocotyle bonariensis; Centella asiatica

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Willingness of people to participate in cropping pattern change projects: Factor analysis of participation indices

Iman Islami1, Asghar Farajollahi2, Ebrahim Karimi Sangchini3

1Department of Rangeland Management, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, IRAN
2Gorgan University of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources, Golestan, IRAN
3Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Department, Lorestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Khorramabad, IRAN

doi:                                                   pp: 19 – 26

Participation of farmers in cropping pattern change projects (CPCP) guarantee success in soil and water conservation projects. Authorities in natural resources face many challenges for the successful management of soil and water in different areas of the Iran, challenges that basically threaten natural resources. Particularly in management programs, it is tried to not only justify the program’s economy but also to draw people acceptance. This research attempts to determine farmer’s participation in CPCP and to deliver solutions to enhance their level of participation in the Baneh of Kurdistan province. Farmers were interviewed individually with questionnaires for further analysis. According to Cochran formula and a field based study, a total of 86 farmers were selected randomly from the farmer community of the Namshir. Analysis showed that six factors make up 67.19% of the total variability indicating that high percentage of variance could be explained by these factors. Factor analysis showed that cognitive-communication factor (with the Eigen value of 3.484 and 17.41%) comparatively had the highest variability. Psychological deterrence factors including motivational, economical, operational and assurance received the second to sixth positions in terms of effectiveness in participants’ willingness to take part in CPCPs in Kurdistan province. Therefore, In order to participate of farmers in the CPCP, their economic issues and welfare should be considered by the relevant executive organizations, and by increasing their awareness, their voluntary and motivated participation should be attracted.

Keywords: Participation, willingness factors, cropping pattern change, factor analysis

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In vitro evaluation of bacterial antagonists in controlling seed borne fungi associated with four oilseed crops in Bangladesh

Tushar Kanti Saha, Sonia Naznin, Mohammad Shahjahan Monjil

Department of Plant Pathology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, BANGLADESH

doi:                                                  pp: 8 – 18

Effect of bacterial antagonists was assessed using blotter incubation method of seed health testing. Four oil-seeds in Bangladesh viz., mustard var. Binasorisha-4, soybean var. Binasoybean-3, sesame var. Binatil-3 and peanut var. Binachinabadam-4 and three bacterial bioagents, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis and Pseudomonas fluorescens were used in this study. Besides these antagonists, Vitavax 200 was used as a positive check treatment along with an untreated control. Among the tested antagonists, in comparison to control treatment, B. subtilis increased the germination of Soybean (91.67%), Sesame (94.00%) and Peanut (83.33%). In case of mustard, highest germination (96.00%) was observed in seed treated with P. fluorescens. Nine fungal mycoflora were recorded from the four non-treated control oilseed samples viz., Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Colletotrichum truncatum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Cercospora personata, Curvularia lunata, Penicillium sp., and Rhizopus sp. The highest number of seed borne fungi was detected in untreated control. According to the observation, B. subtilis, B. thuringiensis and P. fluorescens significantly inhibited seed borne fungi of tested seeds over control treatment. However, Vitavax 200 was found highly effective to inhibit the seed borne fungi. Among the bioagents, B. subtilis suppressed highest number of seed borne fungi such as A. niger (mustard) and Aspergillus flavus (sesame), whereas B. thuringiensis suppressed the highest number of seed borne fungi such as F. oxysporum (Peanut), Aspergillus flavus (Peanut), C. lunata (Sesame) and Penicillium sp.(Peanut). P. fluorescens was found highly effective to inhibit different seed borne fungi such as F. oxysporum (Mustard), Aspergillus flavus (Soybean and Mustard), Penicillium sp. (Mustard and Sesame), C. truncatum (Soybean), C. personata (Soybean) and M. phaseolina (Soybean). In most cases, inhibition of seed borne fungi by P. fluorescens was statistically similar to Vitavax 200. Thus, all of the three tested bioagents were effective to control seed borne fungi associated with oil seed crops. Specifically, P. fluorescens was found to be the most effective bioagent in controlling seed-borne fungi.

Key words: Bacterial antagonist, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens., oilseed, seed borne fungi

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Assessing the diversity of insect pests in grain legumes using different light traps

Bishnu Prasad Neupane 1, Sunil Aryal 1, Jiban Shrestha 2
1Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Entomology Research Centre, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, NEPAL
2Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Plant Breeding and Genetics Research Centre, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, NEPAL

doi:                                      pp: 1 – 7

A set of three types of light traps namely black light at rooftop, black light above ground, and normal light above ground were installed at five places of the open grain legumes cropping area of Grain Legumes Research Program, Khajura, Banke, Nepal from January to December, 2017 for evaluating comparative efficacy of light trap on monitoring the abundance, diversity and population trends of important insects with elevation and prevailing weather conditions. Black light trap was found more effective for monitoring vague diversity of insect species and their abundance than ordinary light trap. Placing black light trap at higher elevation further increased its efficiency to attract many species of night flying adult population (1419 adults comprising of 35 species) as compared to the same trap placed above ground level (766 adults with 35 species) and ordinary trap placed above ground level (701 adults with 33 species). Higher number of insect species (31) were captured in black light trap placed at higher elevation in spring night followed by clear night (22), rainy/cloudy night (10) and winter night (5), respectively. This indicates the abundance of insect population is higher in spring and reaching to few numbers in winter season. As the environment and cropping system is changing, continuous monitoring of insects is required to have their better estimates and information in advance for their management.

Keywords:  Abundance, diversity, insect population, monitoring

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