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Volume 5 Issue 2

Biofortification of food crops: a novel strategy for reducing micronutrient malnutrition

M Jahiruddin

Department of Soil Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, BANGLADESH

doi: 10.5455/faa.96078                                      pp: 133 – 146


More than two billion people across the world are Fe and Zn deficient, the majority of them are rural poor living in developing countries. Poor people cannot afford diversified diets, nutrient supplements and fortified foods. Thus, biofortification appears to be a good means of enriching micronutrients to food crops and it can be done through conventional breeding, transgenic or agronomic approach. Landraces and wild relatives having high mineral contents are used in the breeding programme to develop new varieties with high yield and elevated mineral characteristics. In conventional breeding, parent lines with high mineral levels are crossed and back-crossed over several generations to produce plants that have enhanced level of minerals. Transgenic approach has made it possible to transfer candidate gene from the same or a different species or organism to the intended crops that low in minerals. Internationally the HarvestPlus programme has taken initiative to address micronutrient malnutrition of rural poor in developing countries through development of staple food crop varieties (rice, wheat, maize, cassava, pearl millet, beans and sweet potato) that rich in Fe, Zn and Vitamin A (β-arotene). The whole amount of minerals present in plant foods is not bioavailable to humans due to presence of antinutritional compounds (e.g. phytate) that interferes with the absorption of nutrients. Agronomic biofortification provides temporary micronutrient increase through fertilizer application. This approach could be complementary to breeding strategy for achieving greater success of breeding efforts for micronutrient enrichment of food crops. The present paper presents a comprehensive review of the progress of biofortification research, indicating a sustainable strategy to enhance the micronutrient concentration in staple foods and thereby reducing micronutrient malnutrition.

Keywords: Biofortification, HarvestPlus, Iron, Malnutrition, Micronutrients, South Asia, Zinc

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Weed management in sugar beet: A review

Tamalika Bhadra1, Chandan Kumar Mahapatra1, Swapan Kumar Paul1

1Department of Agronomy, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, BANGLADESH

doi: 10.5455/faa.83758                                                pp: 147 – 156


Sugar is an essential commodity and an integral part of the food chain which is the cheapest source of energy. Sugar plays a vital role in the development of taste, texture, colour and keeps baked goods soft and moist. Sugar beet ranks second as a sugar producing crop in the world. Weeds in beet crops reducing the yield in the field level as well as making the harvesting and processing difficult. The weed seeds in soil bank are detrimental as they germinate in subsequent crop cultivation. Weed control failure causes severe yield loss in sugar beet. However, several weed control measures along with herbicides provide a significant increase of average yields in sugar beet. It has become necessary to reduce the use of them in order to protect the human health as well as the other living organisms. For this reason, alternative ways of controlling weeds are being practiced all over the world. The efficient way of reducing the use of herbicides with the revaluation of agronomic techniques is replacing herbicide treatments. Thereby weed control combine herbicidal and nonherbicidal methods in an integrated manner. Basically, integrated weed control approach provides a potential reduction in weed population. However, this system is not as efficient to minimize the herbicide utilization in larger-scale sugar beet production.

Keywords: Sugar crops, Sugarbeet, cultivation, yield loss, weed management

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Species composition, habitat structure and sedimentation in a Sonneratia caseolaris stand at the Lam River estuary, Vietnam

Kazuya Takahashi1,2,  Tran Thi Tuyen1, Nguyen Huu Hien1, Nguyen Thuy Thi Ha1

1Vinh University, 182, Duan street, Vinh city, Nghe An province, VIETNAM.
2Mie Technology Licensing Organization Co., Ltd., 1577, Kurimamachiya-cho, Tsu city, Mie prefecture, JAPAN

doi: 10.5455/faa.80112                                                 pp: 157 – 166


This study aims to provide some information for development of silvofishery systems with a mangrove (S. caseolaris stand) for shrimp-culture ponds at the Lam River estuary, Vietnam. To achieve this objective, species composition, habitat structure and sedimentation effect in the S. caseolaris stand distributing along the canal for shrimp culture were surveyed. The study reveals that the stand contains four species or more under the canopy; dominant understory species are Aegiceras corniculatum, Cyperus malaccensis and Acanthus spp. (A. ilicifolius and A. ebracteatus). A. corniculatum was observed expanding its distribution area toward the low tidal zone. As a result, the habitat for seedlings/saplings of this species becomes significantly lower in land height than that of Acanthus spp. (ANOVA; p < 0.05), but not different from that of S. caseolaris. Sedimentation rates of A. corniculatum and Acanthus sp. recorded were 13.2 2.9 g m-2 hr-1 and 13.0 4.4 g m-2 hr-1, respectively. S. caseolaris sparsely grows with less developing of pneumatophore, which effectively traps sediment, at the early stage of succession. Considering reinforcement of sedimentation effect, especially right after restoration of the mangrove in the silvofishery systems, A. corniculatum and Acanthus spp. with S. caseolaris are recommendable to be introduced to the systems.

Keywords: Aegiceras corniculatum, Acanthus. understory species, low tidal zone, shrimp-culture pond

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Response of selected sesame varieties to different weed management practices

Md Shoyeb Hossain1, Afrina Rahman1, Muhammad Salim1, Mozammel Hoque2, Ahmed Khairul Hasan1

1Department of Agronomy, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, BANGLADESH
2Department of Agronomy and Haor Agriculture, Sylhet Agricultural University, BANGLADESH

doi: 10.5455/faa.80257                                          pp: 167 – 175


An experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University during February to May 2019 to study the effect of weed management practices on the yield of different sesame varieties. The experiment comprised two factors; factor A: sesame varieties viz. Binatil-2, BARI Til-3 and BARI Til-4; factor B: weed management practices viz. no weeding, one hand weeding at 15 days after sowing (DAS), two hand weeding at 15 and 30 DAS, three hand weeding at 15, 30 and 45 DAS, and post-emergence herbicide application at 10 days after emergence (DAE). Weed parameters and most of the yield contributing characters and yield were significantly influenced by sesame varieties and weed management practices. Among the varieties, the highest seed yield (1.01 t ha-1) was recorded in BARI Til-4, whereas for weed management practice, the highest seed yield (1.26 t ha-1) was obtained in three hand weeding. In interaction, the highest seed yield (1.54 t ha-1) was found in BARI Til-4 with three hand weeding which was statistically similar to two hand with the same variety (1.48 t ha-1). Therefore, BARI Til-4 with two hand weeding at 15, and 30 DAS might be taken in consideration for obtaining higher seed yield in sesame.

Keywords: Weed management, sesame, hand weeding, herbicide, yield

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Agronomic characterization of soybean and bambara groundnut genotypes grown on different soils of Lake Victoria Basin

Benson O Onyango1, Fredrick Otieno Ogolla2

1Department of Biological Sciences, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 210 40601, Bondo, KENYA
2Department of Biological Sciences, Chuka University, P.O. Box 109 60400, Chuka, KENYA

doi: 10.5455/faa.82652                                                     pp: 176 – 187


Neglect and under-utilization of legumes such as soybeans and bambara groundnuts are the reason for increased food insufficiency in the Lake Victoria basin. Diversification of legumes into the cropping systems of Lake Victoria basin ensures protein rich diets and improved soil fertility. This study was carried out to evaluate agronomic characters of two soybean varieties and two bambara groundnut landraces cultivated on different soils of Lake Victoria basin. Seeds of two bambara groundnut landraces; Kakamega Cream (KAKC) and Busia Brown (BUSB) were collected from farmers in Kakamega and Busia counties, respectively in Kenya. Soil sampling was done at selected farmers’ fields with no history of inoculation in Kisumu, Port Victoria, Kendu bay and Karungu within Lake Victoria basin. Screen house experiment was performed in plastic pots with two plants of each cultivar. Randomized Complete Block Design was used. Agronomic characters of BUSB and KAKC landraces differed significant (p<0.05). Bambara groundnuts performed better in Port Victoria and Kendu bay soils than Kisumu and Karungu. Agronomic performance of two soybean varieties SB19 and ‘Safari’ on soils from four sites in Lake Victoria basin was significant (p<0.05). Soybeans yield in Port Victoria and Kendu bay soils was better compared to Kisumu and Karungu soils. Agronomic performance of bambara groundnuts and soybeans were influenced by soil type. Port Victoria and Kendu bay soils resulted in better growth compared to Kisumu and Karungu soils. Landrace KAKC and SB19 had better agronomic performers and are recommended to farmers and seed companies for certified seed production

Keywords: Rhizobia, nodulation, soybean, bambara groundnut, landrace

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Heterosis in maize hybrids at farmer’s field in Dang district of Nepal

Jeevan Upreti1, Prashiksha Acharya1, Jharana Upadhyaya2, Jiban Shrestha3

1Prithu Technical College, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Tribhuvan University, Lamahi, Dang, NEPAL
2National Maize Research Program, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Rampur, Chitwan, NEPAL
3Agriculture Botany Division, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, NEPAL

doi: 10.5455/faa.82914                                                              pp: 188 – 193


This experiment was conducted at the farmer’s field at Bangaun, Dang, Nepal during summer season from 18th May to 21st September 2018 to estimate heterosis in maize hybrids. Seven maize hybrids were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results revealed that all the maize hybrids showed significant positive heterosis over mid parents and better parent for grain yield. High level of heterosis was found for grain yield followed by plant height. The hybrids RH10 and RML86/RML96 produced significantly the highest mid parent heterosis and heterobeltiosis for grain yield. The hybrids RH10 and RH6 produced higher positive heterosis over both check varieties (Rajkumar and Subarna) for grain yield. Hybrid RH10 produced the highest standard heterosis (39.39%) for grain yield over Rajkumar; followed by RH6 (38.45%) and RML86/RML (22.48%), respectively. Mid and better parent heterosis were significantly higher for yield and yield attributes viz cob length, cob diameter, number of kernel rows per cob and number of kernels per row. The highest positive mid parent heterosis for grain yield was found in RML96/RML86 (466.91%) followed by RH10, RH8 and RH4. For the grain yield, the heterobeltiosis was found to be the highest in RH10 followed by RML96/RML96. These results suggested that maize hybrids RH10 and RML96/RML86 could be exploited for commercial cultivation and their parental lines could be used for hybrid seed production.

Keywords: Heterobeltiosis, hybrid maize, summer season, grain yield, Nepal

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Estimation of factors affecting Burundi’s sugar imports from East African community

Jean Claude Ndayisaba1, Job Kibiwot Lagat1, Symon Kibet Kiprop2

1Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Management, Egerton University, Njoro Main Campus, Egerton, KENYA

2Department of Economics, Egerton University, Egerton, KENYA

doi: 10.5455/faa.86977                                            pp: 194 – 201


Around the world, the creation of regional economic communities attracted more attention in empirical analysis. Different techniques were used in order to assess the performances of trade taking place in the regional economic communities. This study applied such analysis to Burundi, concerning sugar imports from the East African Community. More specifically, this study determined the intensity of Burundi’s sugar imports and estimated the factors which influence Burundi’s sugar imports. Both the histograms and the gravity model were used to analyze the data collected from 2003 to 2018. In essence, the results indicated that Burundi intensively imported sugar from Kenya followed by Uganda. Moreover, the results revealed that the gross domestic products (GDPs), the distance and the exchange rates were the major factors influencing Burundi’s sugar imports. For instance, it was found that a 1% increase in the Burundian GDP leads to an expansion of sugar imports by 0.52%. Therefore, policy makers in Burundi should create a space that efficiently maximizes the intensity of sugar imports through attractive trade policies. Moreover, they should particularly put a rigorous control on GDPs, exchange rates and distance in order to enhance a smooth movement of sugar imports from the East African Community.

Keywords: sugar; gravity model; intensity of imports; regional economic community; trade flows.

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Technical efficiency and food security of cucumber farmers in Phulpur upazila of Bangladesh

Mohammad Ataur Rahman, Md Shoheb Talukder, Mezamun Ara Mukta

Department of Agricultural Finance, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, BANGLADESH

doi: 10.5455/faa.88557                                                         pp: 202 – 210


Low productivity of cucumber is mostly due to the inability of the farmers to utilize the available technologies fully, resulting in lower efficiency of production. Profitability and Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) are used to estimate profitability and technical efficiency and “Modified”  OECD scale is used to measure calorie intake level of the 60 cucumber farming households from Sorchapur and Nakagau villages under Phulpur upazila of Mymensingh district. The study has indicated that cucumber cultivation is profitable agribusiness, but many of the cucumber farms have shown technical inefficiency problems. The socioeconomic analysis showed that 50% of the respondents were aged between 30-45 years, 55% households have medium family size, 60% of the respondents were illiterate and 71.67% respondent’s primary occupation was agriculture. The average cucumber cultivated area was 50.18 decimal. The profitability analysis showed that the average per hectare per season yield was 45290 Kg., total cost of production was estimated Tk. 509847; while the gross margin and net return were Tk. 231877 and Tk. 169503, respectively. The study also showed that on an average, the mean technical efficiency of cucumber was 0.7367 represented that 26.33 % inefficiency existed in the study area. About 11.67% of the sample households consumed an average of 1539.24, here indicated they were ultra poor (<1600 About 15 % of the sample households consumed an average of 1797.13, they were in the hard-core poor group and 20.00 % of the households consumed an average 2277.53 k. cal./person/day, they were in the absolute poor group (1805- Besides the three poor groups, about 53.33% of the sample households consumed an average 2346.69, and they were non-poor. These findings suggest that providing training to farmers to be technically efficient would significantly improve cucumber production in the research location, and that the government should formulate appropriate food security policies for rural areas.

Keywords: Bangladesh, Cucumber production, Food security, Profitability, Technical efficiency

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Phenolic content and antioxidant properties of selected medicinal and culinary herbs under different temperatures

Zainol Haida, Jaafar Juju Nakasha, Mansor Hakiman

Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, MALAYSIA

doi: 10.5455/faa.94488                                                pp: 211 – 215


Medicinal and culinary herbs have been used since a long time ago in food to enhance flavor, color, aroma as well as to increase self-life. Herbs are rich in numerous bioactive compounds and possess a wide range of therapeutic properties. This study was conducted to analyze phenolic contents (total polyphenols, phenolic acids and flavonoids contents) and antioxidant activity (DPPH free radical scavenging activity) of selected medicinal and culinary herbs (oregano, basil, coriander, rosemary and thyme) as exposed to different water temperature (27 and 100ºC). From this study, the highest total polyphenols and phenolic acids contents were recorded from 100ºC oregano and thyme extracts with 3.79 and 7.06 mg GAE/g DW, respectively. Meanwhile, the highest total flavonoids content was recorded from the 100ºC oregano extract (3.12 mg QE/g DW) and the highest DPPH free radical scavenging activity was exhibited from 100ºC rosemary extract (3.72 mg TE/g DW). Hence, it is suggesting that herbs used in this study were able to withstand high temperature and suitable to use for cooking.

Keywords: Culinary herbs, polyphenol, phenolic acid, flavonoid, DPPH

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Effect of supplementation of BSA on in vitro maturation and fertilization of Black Bengal goat oocytes

Shuvashis Karmaker1, Auvijit Saha Apu1, S A Masudul Hoque2, M A M Yahia Khandoker1

1Laboratory of Reproductive Biotechnology, Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, BANGLADESH

2 Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur 1706, BANGLADESH

doi: 10.5455/faa.87859                                                       pp: 216 – 223


The present study was conducted to find out the effect of bovine serum albumin (BSA) supplementation on in vitro maturation and fertilization of Black Bengal goat oocytes. Goat ovaries were collected from municipal slaughterhouse and cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected by aspiration technique. Collected COCs were matured in TCM-199 medium supplemented with different levels of BSA as 0% (control), 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5%. Three levels of cumulus cell expansion after 27 h of in vitro maturation (at 38.5°C and 5% CO2 in an incubator) observed under microscope and the different stages of nuclear maturation observed based on chromosomal configuration under emersion oil at high magnification. After maturation, fresh buck semen with a concentration of 1×106 sperm/ ml was used for in vitro fertilization for 5 h at 38.5°C and 5% CO2 in an incubator. The fertility level was measured based on pronuclei formation. From this study, highest expansion was found in 7.5% BSA supplementation (75.55%), followed by 5% BSA (73.87%), 2.5% BSA (61.68%) and 0% BSA (45.36%). The percentages of COCs matured up to metaphase-II stage were 40.78, 57.74, 67.52 and 68.95 at 0% (Control), 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% level of BSA, respectively. It was also observed that significantly (p<0.01) higher percentage (35.52% and 37.74%) of normal fertilization (formation of 2 pronuclei) was observed in 5.0 and 7.5% BSA level compared to control (23.28%) and 2.5% level (29.30%).  These results indicated that the cumulus cell expansion, nuclear maturation and fertilization rate could be significantly increased (p<0.01) by supplementing 2.5% level of BSA. The rates could be improved further (p<0.01) by increasing the level up to 5% but no more improvement (p>0.05) occurred when BSA was increased to 7.5%. Thus, it can be concluded that bovine serum albumin at 5% level might be used as a supplement for maturation and fertilization of goat oocytes in TCM-199 medium.

 Keywords: In vitro maturation, BSA, TCM-199, goat oocytes

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Extraction and characterization of endogenous cellulases in Achatina fulica for lignocellulose digestion

Mudasir Ahmad Dar1, 2, Jyoti M Chintalchere1, Radhakrishna S Pandit1

1Department of Zoology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, Maharashtra 411007, INDIA

2School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu province 212013, CHINA

doi: 10.5455/faa.91698                                                         pp: 224 – 234


The giant African land snail, Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) acts as a prolific pest of over 500 crop species. Its major digestive enzymes responsible for digestion and assimilation of lignocellulose are not well studied. In this regard, we attempted to investigate the endogenous cellulases secreted by the snail which have been largely ignored due to more focus on its gut symbionts. The pH of the gut regions were found to be acidic ranging between pH. 3.0 to 6.2 in most of the regions which plays a pivotal role for the cellulose digestion. The study revealed that snail also secrets its own enzymes depicting some evolutionary significance. The crop, stomach and intestinal extracts showed maximum activity at 60 C. The enzyme extracts except crop region exhibited susceptibility to temperature showing least stability. Similarly, the optimum pH of the gut extracts was depicted to be 3.0 showing a positive corroboration with digestive physiology of the snail. The undertaken gut extracts showed more preference towards cellulosic substrates such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), avicel and xylan, signifying the herbivorous pest nature of the snail. The presented study provides vital baseline data to prospect for novel cellulase genes within snails by using functional-genomic analysis.

Keywords: Pest; Snail; Achatina fulica; Cellulose; Endogenous cellulases.

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Effect of curing and storage temperature on shelf life of onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs

Assinapol Ndereyimana1, Shinichi Koyama2, Boniface Kagiraneza1

1Agriculture Research and Technology Transfer Department, Rwanda Agriculture and Animal Resources Development Board (RAB). P.O. Box 5016 Kigali, RWANDA

2 Overseas Agricultural Development Association, 8-10-32 Akasaka, Minato-ku, JAPAN

doi: 10.5455/faa.97770                                                        pp: 235 – 242


Simple and low-cost farm technologies are required for small-scale farmers in developing countries to improve marketability and reduce postharvest losses of onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of curing and storage temperature on shelf life of onion bulbs. In the first experiment, the cured bulbs of yellow onion ‘Shippo’ were stored at five different temperature levels: 15°C, 20°C, 25°C and 30°C, and room condition (Rc) for 11 weeks from May to August 2015. It was arranged in a completely randomised design with twelve replications. In the second experiment, cured and non-cured red onion bulbs ‘Shonan Red’ were stored at four different temperature levels: 15°C, 20°C, 25°C and 30°C, for eight weeks from June to August 2015. It was arranged as a two factorial experiment with 10 replications. Onion shelf life was measured by recording weight loss, sprouted, rotten, and mould infected bulbs, as well as general appearance. The results indicated that curing treatment significantly reduced weight loss and rotting percentage, while maintaining high score of the general appearance. The non-cured bulbs stored at 30°C showed higher percentage of rotten bulbs by 40% after eight weeks of storage. On the other hand, in case of the cured onion bulbs, rotting and mould infection (%) were recorded only at 15°C. Sprouting of 8.3% was observed only in onion bulbs stored at 20°C in the first experiment after nine weeks of storage. The obtained results suggested that onion bulbs should be cured and stored at 25−30°C for better marketability and longer shelf life. Further experiments can be conducted to evaluate the performance of cured bulbs for different onion cultivars stored in ambient conditions of Rwanda.

Keywords: Curing, Onion, Postharvest, Small scale farmers, Storage life, Water loss

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In vitro responses of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert) to MS basal medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine and indole-3-butyric acid

Nor Asikin Asmuni 1, Mansor Hakiman 1 2

1Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, MALAYSIA
2Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, MALAYSIA

doi: 10.5455/faa.103572                                                pp: 243 – 247


Propagation of  S. rebaudiana Bert. can be done by seed germination and stem cutting. Seed germination of this plant is not efficient due to low fertility and having heterogeneous population, thus producing unstable sweetening level. Therefore, micropropagation can overcome this problem by producing large number of plantlets within a short time. In this effort, the effect of different concentrations of plant growth regulators; auxin and cytokinin were observed to find out the multiplication responses of S. rebaudiana Bert in vitro. The nodal segments were used as explant and inoculated onto full strength of Murashige and Skoog (MS) media. The medium was supplemented with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP); 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 mg L-1 and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA); 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg L-1. After six weeks of culture, the data regarding number and length of shoots, number and length of roots and callus percentage were recorded. The results showed that among the treatment combinations, 3.0 mg L-1 BAP produced the highest number of shoots per explant and application of 1.5 mg L-1 IBA showed the best performance for rooting.

Keywords: 6-benzylaminopurine; indole-3-butyric acid; in vitro responses; Stevia rebaudiana

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Effectiveness of insect growth regulators for management of legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata F. in yard long bean

Robiah Noor Ahmed1, Mohammad Mahir Uddin2, Md Azizul Haque2, Kazi Shahanara Ahmed2

1Department of Agricultural Extension, Natore, Rajshahi, BANGLADESH
2Department of Entomology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, BANGLADESH

doi: 10.5455/faa.100126                                                 pp: 248 – 255


The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is considered the most serious pest of yard long bean. An experiment was conducted in the field laboratory of the Department of Entomology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during kharif season 2016 to evaluate the effectiveness of two commonly used insect growth regulators (IGR), burofezin and lufenuron with different doses and a widely used chemical insecticide nitro 505 EC as recommended dose for the management of legume pod borer. The treatments were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design along with an untreated control with three replications of each treatment. The efficacy of the treatments was evaluated based on the percentage flower and pod infestation, percentage larval survivability and marketable pod yield. It was found that all the treatments were significantly effective against pod borer than the untreated control. The highest efficacy was found from the buprofezin among the treatments. Buprofezin @ 0.75 mL L-1 exhibited the best performance resulting 64.16 and 70.60% reduction of flower and pod infestation, respectively consequently providing 43.95% surviving larvae and 40.35% increase of pod yield with the benefit cost ratio 1.47. This result was followed by buprofezin @ 0.5 mL L-1 and provided the results as 61.96%, 67.46%, 44.06%, 40.11%, and 1.48 flower infestation, pod infestation, surviving larvae, yield increase and benefit cost ration, respectively. Therefore, buprofezin @ 0.5mL L-1 might be recommended for the effective and economic management of legume pod borer in the yard long bean field.

Keywords: Efficacy, IGR, buprofezin, lufenuron, nitro 505EC, pod borer

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Morphological traits and yield performance of Purple rice under varying plant densities

Md Ruhul Kuddus, Sontosh C Chanda, Md Alamgir Hossain, A K M Golam Sarwar

Laboratory of Plant Systematics, Department of Crop Botany, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, BANGLADESH

doi: 10.5455/faa.106438                                pp: 256 – 263

An experiment was conducted at the Field Laboratory, Department of Crop Botany, Bangladesh Agricultural University during Aman season 2018 primarily to describe agro-morphological descriptors of a purple rice cultivar and to evaluate the effect of spacing on morphological traits, yield contributing characters and yield. The experiment comprised four rice cultivars; Purple rice and three other check viz. BR22, BRRI dhan34 and BRRI dhan46, and three spacing viz.15cm×15cm, 20cm×15cm and 25cm×15cm. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. All the studied morphological traits, yield contributing characters and yield were significantly differed among the cultivars and planting densities. Purple rice cultivar was 101.8cm in height; the number of total tillers hill–1 12.88, number of non-effective tiller hill–1 1.37; leaf vertical and straight, purple in colour; panicle length 23.63cm, number of primary and secondary branches panicle–1 13.28 and 15.56, length of primary and secondary branch 8.91cm and 2.26cm, number of total and unfilled grains panicle–1 140.5 and 57.95, respectively; 1000-grains weight 21.92g, grain yield 3.55 t ha–1, harvest index 51.03% and lifespan 115 days. The spacing 25cm×15cm was found to be better for both growth and grain yield of Purple rice. Purple rice could be used as potential breeding material for its exceptional morphological characteristics.

Keywords: Morphological attributes, population density, short duration cultivar, purple rice, monsoon rice

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Physicochemical properties of sediments and water in shrimp farms of Dacope Upazilla in south-west coastal region of Bangladesh

Rasel Rana, Mohammad Golam Kibria, Tahsina Sharmin Haque, Md Anwarul Abedin

Department of Soil Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, BANGLADESH

doi: 10.5455/faa.91979                                          pp: 264 – 269


Sediments and water quality parameters are the key determinants for sustainable shrimp farming in Bangladesh. In this context, an investigation was carried out to assess the physicochemical properties of sediments and water in shrimp farming areas of Dacope Upazilla of Bangladesh. The data were collected from 21 shrimp farms located in three villages of Dacope Upazilla of Khulna district and the farms were categorized in three different groups including freshwater shrimp + rice, brackish water shrimp + rice, and brackish water shrimp farm. Water samples were analyzed for determining quality parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS). Chemical analyses of both sediments and water samples were done for P, K, S, Ca, and Mg contents while total N determination was performed only for soil samples. The values of pH, EC and TDS of water samples in three different shrimp farms ranged from 6.12 to 8.99, 2.10 to 23.50 dS m-1 and 103 to 437 mg L-1, respectively. The contents of P, K, S, Ca, and Mg contents in water samples of three different shrimp farms ranged from 1.17 to 4.93 mg L-1, 8.57 to 38.24 mg L-1, 10.65 to 47.48 mg L-1, 65.22 to 273.49 mg L-1 and  45.38 to 243.85 mg L-1, respectively. On the other hand, the contents of total N, available P, exchangeable K, available S, Ca and Mg contents in sediment samples of three different shrimp farms ranged from 0.112 to 0.289%, 13.58 to 50.61 µg g-1, o.51 to 2.28 me 100g-1, 111.26 to 150.91µg g-1, 3.46  to 20.64 me 100g-1 and 2.20  to 14.58 me 100g-1, respectively. For both sediments and water samples, the highest values of quality parameters and nutrient contents were found in brackish water shrimp farm while the lowest values were recorded in freshwater shrimp + rice farm which might be due to level of salinity, farm practices (feed, antibiotics and other chemicals) and season of the year. Hence, the impact of shrimp farming could be minimized by flushing saline water to leach salinity of sediments in time with the available supply of fresh water in association with rice cultivation.

Keywords: Shrimp farming, soil and water quality and coastal area

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Improved Nga-pi: preparation and changes in it’s quality parameters under various storage conditions

Shikha Fatema Hoque, Hossain Md Ismail, Das Bijoy Kumar

Department of Fisheries Technology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, BANGLADESH

doi: 10.5455/faa.75035                                                pp: 270 – 280


The study was conducted on the improvement of production method of Nga-pi and to observe the shelf life of laboratory prepared Nga-pi under various storage conditions in the Department of Fisheries Technology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.Bangladesh. For the production of Nga-pi in laboratory applying improved techniques, Acetes and Mysid shrimps were collected from Chowfalldandi fish-landing center, Cox’s Bazar in iced condition, were used as raw materials for Nga-pi production at laboratory. which were preserved in ice, then transported to Mymensingh in an insulated box. Whole process of Nga-pi production was completed within 15 days. Laboratory prepared Nga-pi was srored for 180 days in three packing conditions (locally available mospata which is used to cover Nga-pi at Cox’s Bazar region, open polythene pack and air-tight polythene pack) at three storage temperatures (room, refrigeration and frozen temperature) Initial value of percent moisture content of laboratory prepared improved Nga-pi was 57.18 which reached to 63.03 in air-tight polythene pack at frozen temperature (-18.0±0.1)°C  at the end of storage. The initial value of percent protein content was 29.78 which decreased to 15.86 in open polythene pack at frozen temperature (-18±0.1)°C  and in the case of percent lipid content decreased to 4.00 in open polythene pack at refrigeration temperature (5.0±0.5)°C from 5.05 at the end of storage.. Initial value of TVB-N was 18.00 mg/100 g;  at the end of storage the highest value was found 36.30 mg/100 g ) in mospata at room temperature (28.0±2.0)oC  and the initial value of NPN 2.12 mg/100 g increased to 4.00 mg/100 g at room temperature (28.0±2.0°C) in open plastic pack at the end of the storage. The pH value of Nga-pi was 8.10 at initial stage; which declined to 5.42 in mospata at room temperature at the end of storage period. For aerobic plate count the initial value was 2.11 × 103 (CFU/g); which reached to 8.60× 109 (CFU/g) in mospata at room temperature (28±2) at the end of storage.The results showed that the moisture content, TVB-N value and bacterial load increased during ‘180’ days of storage at all the storage temperatures but quite slowly at frozen temperature (-18±0.1)ºC in improved Nga-pi and air-tight polythene pack was better for it’s storage than mospata or open polythene pack.

Keywords: Improved Nga-pi, packing method, storage temperature, quality parameters

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Genotypes × environment interaction for grain yield of finger millet under hilly region of Nepal

Manoj Kandel1, Jiban Shrestha2, Narayan Bahadur Dhami1, Tirtha Raj Rijal3  

1Hill Crops Research Program, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Baiteshwor-4, Kabre, Dolakha, NEPAL
2Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Agriculture Botany Division, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, NEPAL
3Agricultural Research Station, Bijayanagar, Jumla, NEPAL

doi: 10.5455/faa.96493                                                    pp: 281 – 288


Grain yield stability on new finger millet genotypes through G×E interaction analysis is an important task for finger millet breeding programs. Sixteen promising finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) genotypes were evaluated in randomized complete block design replicated over two locations viz Kabre, Dolakha; and Vijaynagar, Jumla, Nepal over three years (2017, 2018 and 2019). The stability parameters were computed for grain yield after Eberhart and Russell. The pooled analysis of variance revealed that the genotypes and genotype × environment (G × E) interaction were significant for grain yield. The genotypes KLE-559 produced the highest grain yield (3.32 t/ha). The genotypes namely KLE-559 (b=1.15) and ACC#2843 (b=1.12) had more than unity regression indicating the genotype’s suitability towards favorable environments. GGE biplot showed genotype KLE-559 was stable genotype under tested environments. Thus, this genotype was recommended for release as a variety to improve finger millet production in mid hill environments of Nepal.

Keywords: Finger millet (Elusine coracana L. Gaertn), G × E interaction, GGE biplot, Yield Parameters

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