Volume 5 Issue 1
doi: 10.5455/faa.73168 pp: 1 – 9
Allelopathy is probably involved in all aspects of natural ecosystems such as competition and succession of plant communities. Much of research in allelopathy mentioned that allelopathy can be used to control weeds and to reduce synthetic chemical input into agriculture practices. Several important papers describing allelopathy and allelopathic active substances in plants in Bangladesh have published in the last decay. Hundreds of plant species including about 150 rice cultivars in Bangladesh were evaluated their allelopathic potential. Dozens of allelopathic active substances including novel compounds were also isolated from those plant species. Concept of allelopathy is very important to developed sustainable agriculture setting in organic farming. Some of the information in allelopathy have the potential for use in understanding and controlling weeds in agriculture.
Keywords: Allelopathy, Bangladesh, Phytotoxicity, Weed management
Parviz Almasi, Mahmud Tengku Muda Mohamed
doi: 10.5455/faa.80674 pp: 10 – 20
Ethylene is produced as a gaseous growth regulator in all plants and their constructive parts such as roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits. It is considered as a multifunctional phytohormone that regulates both growth including flowering, fruit ripening, inhibition of root growth, and senescence such as senescence of leaves and flowers and etc. In addition, exposure to external ethylene is caused some changes that are often undesirable and harmful. Some flowers are more sensitive to others and when exposed to ethylene; their aging process is hastened. 1-MCP is an exogenous and endogenous ethylene action inhibitor, which binds to the ethylene receptors in the plants and prevents the ethylene-dependent reactions. The binding affinity of 1-MCP for the receptors is about 10 times more than ethylene. Hence, 1-MCP can be a potential candidate for controlling of ethylene injury in horticultural crops. This review integrates knowledge of ethylene biosenthesis in the
plants and also mode of action of 1-MCP in preventing of ethylene injury.
Keywords: Ethylene injury, ethylene biosynthesis, ethylene sensitivity, 1-MCP effects
doi: 10.5455/faa.82636 PP: 21 – 46
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) can be regarded as a good indicator of a healthy soil ecosystem as it is comparatively much more responsive than total organic carbon to the environmental changes. It controls most important physical and biochemical processes both in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The movement of DOM in soils could be restricted by its adsorption to surfaces of minerals available in the soils. The aim of this review is to gather and synthesize the literature on the quantity and quality as well as stabilization process of DOM in soil. Various processes have been proposed, including anion exchange, ligand exchange, cation bridging, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals forces for describing DOM-mineral associations. But still there is a challenge to describe and evaluate these mechanisms clearly and quantitatively in different soil types and ecosystems. The extent and rate of sorption of DOM depends on the mineralogy, quality of OM and soil solution. There is limited literature on the quantitative connection between mineralogy and chemical properties of adsorbed DOM, especially for the assessment of diverse DOM-mineral interactions. The reversibility of sorbed OM is also needed to be studied more considering the effect of DOM properties and changing environmental conditions. Most of the research on DOM-mineral interactions focused on the limited natural ecosystem (mainly temperate forest, grassland or stream etc.). Thus, there is still great scope to investigate the controls of DOM dynamics and stabilization in soils of different use and management, and also in different climate zones other than temperate area.
Keywords: Dissolved organic carbon, carbon flux, organic carbon stabilization, organo-mineral interaction.
Khin Maung Nyunt, Moe Kyaw Thu, Seint San Aye, Khin Thida Myint
doi: 10.5455/faa.79176 PP: 47 – 58
The identification of Trichoderma species, existing in different ecosystems in Myanmar was investigated by using morphology and molecular based techniques. A total of 25 isolates of Trichoderma spp. were isolated from the rhizosphere soils collected from different ecosystems. Serial dilution plate technique was used to recover Trichoderma spp. from soil samples. On the basis of colony growth rate, the 21 isolates were observed the same growth rate (30 mm/day) at 28±2ºC while the lowest growth rate (27.34 mm/day) was observed in isolate Tri17-Mmy. All of isolates were classified into three different groups on the basis of their colony characters and the microscopic observations. The macroscopic and microscopic characters of these isolates were compared with the reported literature and confirmed the group I isolates as Trichoderma harzianum (12 isolates), group II as Trichoderma viride (8 isolates) and group III as Trichoderma longibrachiatum (5 isolates). Sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers were used to characterize the isolates by PCR. Among these isolates, 12 isolates of Trichoderma species showed a specific band of 220 bp only in Trichoderma harzianum and 8 isolates also showed a specific band of 990 bp only in Trichoderma viride.
Keywords: Morphology and Molecular Characterization; Myanmar; SCAR markers; Trichoderma species
Taslima Zahan, Md Moshiur Rahman, Mahfuza Begum, Md Enamul Haque, Richard W Bell
doi:10.5455/faa.56921 pp: 59 – 69
The study was initiated with the aims to determine the variation in growth and yield of winter wheat varieties to pendimethalin at different application rates and to identify the wheat varieties tolerant or susceptible to pendimethalin. A two-year study was conducted on sandy clay loam textured soil containing low organic matter content during the dry season having no or very little amount of rainfall. Eight wheat varieties (BARI Gom 21 to 28) were tested against pendimethalin 33EC applied at its label rate (3 L ha-1), double (6 L ha-1) and three times of the label rate (9 L ha-1). Emergence of all wheat varieties was not adversely affected by pendimethalin even applied at three times higher than the label rate; however, plant heights of BARI Gom 23 and BARI Gom 25 were slightly decreased with increasing application rate. Label rate application of pendimethalin did not decrease the yields of all wheat varieties compared to the control, but BARI Gom 21, BARI Gom 22, BARI Gom 24, BARI Gom 26 and BARI Gom 27 gave their best yields at three times higher of the label rate application. Therefore, the study marked out BARI Gom 21, BARI Gom 22, BARI Gom 24, BARI Gom 26 and BARI Gom 27 as the pendimethalin-tolerant wheat varieties under strip planting system. Additionally, the study confirmed that all the wheat varieties were tolerant to label rate application of pendimethalin; however, BARI Gom 23, BARI Gom 25 and BARI Gom 28 were susceptible to the higher rate of pendimethalin.
Keywords: Herbicide; minimum tillage; plant growth; tolerance; wheat
Mst Farzana Rahman, Md Parvez Anwar, Md Delwar Hossain, Md Harun Rashid, F N Kamarum Munira, Israt Jahan
doi: 10.5455/faa.73672 pp: 70 – 77
An experiment was carried out at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during July-October 2016 to investigate into the tolerance of hybrid rice variety Dhani Gold to tiller separation. The experimental treatments included (a) 3 times of tiller separation viz. tiller separation at 3 weeks after transplanting (3 WAT), 4 WAT and 5 WAT, and (b) 5 levels of number of tillers separated hill−1 viz. intact hill, 1 tiller, 2 tillers, 3 tillers and 4 tillers separated hill was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Tiller separation adversely affected the growth, in terms of plant stature and tillering ability, of Dhani Gold. Intact hill showed taller plants and higher number of tillers compared to tiller mutilated hills. With the delay in tiller separation, plant height of Dhani Gold was gradually decreased but tillering ability gradually increased. Effective tiller production was reduced only when tillers were separated after 4 WAT, but delay in tiller separation enhanced grains panicle−1 production. Early separation of tillers up to 4 WAT did not affect grain yield, but separation after 4 WAT reduced grain yield of Dhani Gold. Separation of only 1 tiller hill−1 at 3 or 4 WAT and intact hills produced statistically similar yield. To conclude, hybrid rice variety Dhani Gold can tolerate tiller separation to some extent. Only one tiller can be separated before 4 WAT without causing any yield reduction of mother plant, but tiller separation after 4 weeks will reduce the yield of mother plant. Therefore, farmers may be advised to separate tillers from Dhani Gold within 4 WAT for re-transplanting as a post flood crop after recession of flood water.
Keywords: Tiller separation, growth, yield, hybrid rice
Khem Raj Pant, Bishnu Raj Ojha, Dhruba Bahadur Thapa, Raju Kharel, Nutan Raj Gautam, Jiban Shrestha
doi: 10.5455/faa.79404 pp: 78 – 87
Genetic biofortification, a way to improve micronutrients mainly zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) concentrations, in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that could reduce the malnutrition in the developing world. This study was conducted at the research field of Hill Crops Research Program, Kabre, Dolakha, Nepal from December 2015 to May 2016 to evaluate biofortified wheat genotypes for grain zinc and iron concentrations, grain yield and associated compo- nent traits. Fifty biofortified spring wheat genotypes were evaluated using alpha lattice design with two replications. Highly significant variation was found among the wheat genotypes for days to heading, days to maturity, thousand grains weight, grain yield, grain zinc and iron concentrations. The value of grain zinc concentration varied from 18.85 to 69.98 ppm with a mean value of 34.12 ppm. The genotype 6HPYT405 had the highest grain zinc concentration (69.98 ppm) followed by 6HPYT432 (46.62 ppm) and 6HPYT404 (44.56 ppm). Similarly, the value of grain iron concentration var- ied from 35.05 to 56.06 ppm with a mean value of 44.65 ppm. The genotypes 6HPYT420 had the highest grain iron concentration (56.06 ppm) followed by genotype 6HPYT405 (55.94 ppm) and 6HPYT421 (55.33 ppm). The geno- types 6HPYT404, 6HPYT405, 6HPYT410, 6HPYT421, 6HPYT423, 6HPYT431, 6HPYT432, 6HPYT439, 6HPYT440 and 6HPYT450 had higher grain zinc and iron concentrations. So, these genotypes can be used as parents in future breeding programs to develop zinc and iron-enriched wheat varieties. The genotypes namely 6HPYT428, 6HPYT437, 6HPYT438, 6HPYT443, 6HPYT444, 6HPYT447 and 6HPYT448 were found high yielding genotypes which could be selected for varietal development program.
Keywords: Biofortification, zinc, iron, heritability, wheat
Effect of poultry manure and inorganic fertilizer on earthworms and soil fertility: Implication on root nodulation and yield of climbing bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)
Christopher Ngosong, Ivor karawa Nfor, Clovis Bessong Tanyi, Marie Noela Enyoe Olougou, Lawrence Tatanah Nanganoa, Aaron Suh Tening
doi: 10.5455/faa.76612 pp: 88 – 98
Grain legumes provide dual benefits as a food source and soil fertility or plant nutrition enhancer, but the latter role may be influenced by fertilisation regimes. A controlled study was conducted to evaluate the impact of four fertilizer treatments (control–no input, single dose NPK, split dose NPK, and poultry manure) on earthworms and soil fertility, and the implication on the performance of climbing bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). The fertilizer amendments significantly affected the soil pH, organic C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, and ECEC with the highest effect caused by poultry manure. The bean root nodule mass differed significantly across treatments with the highest in control, followed by inorganic fertilizers, and poultry manure. Significant negative correlations occurred between the root nodule mass and soil organic C, N, P, Mg, Ca, and ECEC. Earthworm density differed significantly across treatments with the highest in poultry manure as compared to the control and both single and split dose inorganic fertilizer. Earthworms correlated negatively with soil acidity and positively with soil pH, K, Mg, Ca, and ECEC. The number of bean pods differed significantly across fertilizer treatments with the highest in poultry manure followed by the split dose NPK, which differed from the control and single dose NPK. In addition, the number of bean pods correlated positively with earthworm density and soil organic C, P, Mg, Ca, and ECEC. These findings demonstrate the importance of poultry manure on earthworm population and soil fertility status, and the implication on the performance of climbing beans. Nonetheless, the results highlight potential limitations of poultry manure on root nodulation and nitrogen fixing abilities of climbing bean, which should be considered when designing integrated soil fertility management strategies.
Keywords: Fertilisation, legumes, manure, nodulation, yield
Sadia Ferdausi Nimu, Swapan Kumar Paul, Md Abdus Salam, Shubroto Kumar Sarkar
doi: 10.5455/faa.80967 pp: 99 – 107
An experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during December 2018 to May 2019 to study the influence of weed free periods on the growth, yield and quality of soybean (Glycine max L.). The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The experiment comprised three varieties viz. Binasoybean-1, Binasoybean-3 and BARI Soybean-6, and five weed free periods viz. weedy check, weed free up to 20 days after sowing (DAS), weed free up to 40 DAS, weed free up to 60 DAS and weed free throughout the growth period. The BARI Soybean-6 produced the tallest plant (44.75 cm), the highest number of nodules plant−1 (30.17) and dry matter plant−1 (7.37 g) at 80 DAS for the weed free growth period. Similarly, at harvest, BARI Soybean-6 gave the highest plant height (45.99 cm), number of pods plant−1 (24.27), 1000-seed weight (115.20 g), seed yield (1.58 t ha−1), stover yield (1.92 t ha−1), protein content (43.96%) and oil content (18.70%) while Binasoybean-1 showed the lowest results of all parameters. Weed free throughout the growth period produced the highest plant height (47.92 cm), number of branches plant−1 (6.26), number of pods plant−1 (33.04), 1000-seed weight (123.10 g), seed yield (1.82 t ha−1), stover yield (2.15 t ha−1), protein content (44.80%) and oil content (19.47%) whereas the corresponding lowest values were recorded in weedy check. Seed yield increased by 91.58% in weed free throughout the growth period compared to weedy check. In case of interaction, the highest seed yield (1.97 t ha−1), stover yield (2.28 t ha−1) and protein content (45.50%) were observed in BARI Soybean-6 along with weed free throughout the growth period which was at par with BARI Soybean-6 with weed free up to 60 DAS while the lowest values of all parameters were found in Binasoybean-1 with weedy check treatment. In conclusion, BARI Soybean-6 along with weed free up to 60 DAS is the promising combination for soybean cultivation.
Keywords: Soybean, variety, weed, yield, protein and oil content
Evaluating the potentials of boro and aus rice varieties as a substitute to the short duration rice varieties in aman season
Md. Moshiur Rahman, Md. Jafirul Islam, Md. Parvez Anwar
doi: 10.5455/faa.76859 pp: 108-115
Timely sowing/planting of Rabi crops in the T. Aman rice – Rabi crop – Boro rice pattern is very important. Short duration rice varieties are cultivated in Aman season to facilitate timely sowing of Rabi crops. Most of the short duration Aman rice varieties are sensitive to early transplanting and thus, early vacating of land for subsequent Rabi crops planting does not happen. This experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University to investigate the yield performance of some Boro rice varieties in response to date of transplanting in Aman season. Five rice varieties viz. BRRI dhan28, BRRI dhan48, BRRI dhan55, BRRI dhan58 and Binadhan-7 were transplanted on four dates viz. 21 June, 11 July, 1 August and 22 August 2016 in a split-plot design with three replications. The variety and date of transplanting had significant interaction effects on grain yield and most of the crop characters of rice. BRRI dhan58 produced the highest grain yield (5.45 t ha-1), straw yield (6.17 t ha-1), and biological yield (11.62 t ha-1) within the lowest field duration (96 days) among the different varieties transplanted at different dates. Short duration Aman rice variety Binadhan-7 gave the highest grain yield of 5.10 t ha-1 when planted on 1 August and required field duration of 109 days while BRRI dhan48 gave the highest grain yield of 5.10 t ha-1 and required 107 days when transplanted on 22 August. The present study concludes that BRRI dhan58 could be used as a short duration rice variety for obtaining high yield in early Aman season and for vacating the land for facilitating early sowing of Rabi crops.
Key words: Date of transplanting, crop phenology, field duration, early Aman rice, Rabi crops
Md Abu Hanif, Md Matiul Islam, Mohammad Bashir Ahmed
doi: 10.5455/faa.78035 pp: 116 – 123
Rural-urban migration is an important issue regarding the availability of manpower both in rural and urban areas of Bangladesh. It’s a dynamic issue and depends on various changing factors over time. The present study is an attempt to explore the present factors that cause laborer migration. It purports to inquire into push and pull factors of migration of agricultural laborer in Dumuria upazila of Khulna district. Data were collected from the purposively selected 80 respondents during August to September 2019 through a structured interview schedule on a number of eleven selected socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and the (push-pull) factors affecting migration. Relationships between the concerned independent variables and dependent variable (migration to urban area) were ascertained using Pearson’s Product Moment Coefficient of Correlation (r) [for parametric data] and Spearman’s Rank Order Coefficients (ρ) [for non-parametric data] of Correlation. The majority of the respondents (58.75%) were middle aged, 27.50% had higher secondary level of education, 76.25% were married, 60% belonged to the medium sized family, 65% had small sized farm, and 46.25% had low experience in farming. The majority (58.75%) of the respondents had low annual family income, 78.75% had no training, 56.25% had no organizational participation, 56.25% had low scale of extension media contact, and 46.25% had high cosmopolitanism. More than half (53.75%) of the respondents made a decision by themselves to migrate with a properly planned way (67.5%). About half of the migrants (48.75%) are presently involved in works which are permanent in nature. The majority (63.25%) of the respondent indicated that the place of migration is more improved than the previous residence. 60% of the respondents were moderately affected by push factors and 66.25% were affected by pull factors of rural-urban migration. The respondents hada high migration index of push factors regarding landlessness (67.50%) and pull factors regarding most attractive quality life (82.08%). Among other push factors extreme poverty (65.83/%) and searching for work (63.75%) ranked 2nd and 3rd respectively. Among other pull factors more wealth (81.25%) and better service (79.17%) ranked 2nd and 3rd respectively. Among the selected characteristics of the respondents, there was a significant negative relationship between farming experience and migration. The study concludes that rural-urban migrationoccurs not for ignoring agricultural activities, but it happens for searching improvement of overall life status by a farmer.
Keywords: Agricultural laborers,Migration, Push-pull factors, Relationships
Surajit Sarkar, Md Samiul Basir, Muhammad Ashik-E-Rabbani, Md Mosharraf Hossain, Md Monjurul Alam
doi: 10.5455/faa.79466 pp: 124 – 132
This study was conducted to analyze the financial parameters of a mechanical rice transplanter operation for local service providers and entrepreneurs with hybrid rice variety. Two walking type mechanical rice transplanter of model Daedong DP 480 and DP 488 were used in the experiment. Field data from farmers and local service providers and also some necessary secondary data were used to establish the results of this research. The experiment was carried out in two different cropping seasons, Boro-2018 at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh and in Aman-2018 at Mothbaria village of Dumuria Upazila, Khulna. Daedong DP 480 transplanter was used in Boro-2018 season and in Aman season, Daedong DP 488 transplanter was used. The effective field capacity was found 0.173 ha/h and 0.189 ha/h. for DP 480 and DP 488 transplanter, respectively. Considering 10% discount factor, the NPV of DP 480 transplanter was found 7358USD with IRR of 59% and for DP 488, NPV was 8037.97 USD at 63% IRR. The NPV and IRR indicate the financial viability of rice transplanter entrepreneurship as the IRR is much higher than the bank interest rate. The payback period of DP 480 was found 1.60 years whereas the DP 488 will return the capital in 1.51 years. By analyzing the BCR of the two rice transplanters, use of transplanter was also found profitable for entrepreneurs for custom hire services as the BCR of DP 480 and DP 488 transplanterswere found 1.62 and 1.66, respectively. The minimum tenure for the economic use of the transplanters was found 20.36 ha and 21.01 ha per year for DP 480 and DP 488 transplanter, respectively. Evaluating the financial parameters of total procedure of mechanical transplanting, the machine transplanting was found to be more economic over manual transplanting with both hybrid and inbred rice varieties when it is subjected to cover up more than 10.1ha and 6.7 ha per year, respectively.
Keywords: BCR, Break-even point, Financial analysis, Hybrid rice, IRR, Rice transplanter