Volume 4 Issue 3
Changes in organoleptic and biochemical parameters of three commercially important marine ﬁsh species of Bay of Bengal during ice storage
Md Ismail Hossain, Fatema Hoque Shikha, Riton Ghosh
doi: 10.5455/faa.43754 pp: 970-977
The study was conducted to observe the changes in organoleptic and bio-chemical parameters of three marine ﬁsh species of Bay of Bengal during ice storage. The ﬁsh species, viz., Bombay duck (Harpadon nehereus), silver jewﬁsh (Johnius argentatus) and ribbon ﬁsh (Trichiurus haumela) were collected from the landing center of Cox’s Bazar and frozen transported to Mymensingh city. After arrival in Mymensingh, the ﬁsh samples were stored in ice for about 9 days by applying fresh ﬂakes of ice to the ﬁshes at regular interval. During the storage period, required amount of ﬁsh samples were taken out from the ice box at two-day interval to collect data on changes in
organoleptic and biochemical parameters (e.g., analysis of proximate composition, TVB-N and pH). During ice storage, the overall organoleptic qualities of all ﬁsh samples were in acceptable condition up to 9 days. The ﬁsh samples stored in ice exhibited excellent quality on the basis of physical characteristics until 3rd day of storage. Biochemical analyses revealed that the percent moisture content of Bombay duck, silver jewﬁsh and ribbon ﬁsh increased with the lapse of storage period whereas the percent protein content decreased With the progress in storage period. Lipid content also decreased gradually in the same samples but the percent ash content of the samples changed very little. The values for total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) of the three ﬁsh samples increased slightly during the storage period. The pH value of the
ﬁsh samples also increased throughout the storage. So, the present study conclude that the organoleptic characteristics and biochemical parameters of above mentioned ﬁsh changes during ice storage of 9 days but found acceptable for human consumption.
Keywords: Organoleptic quality, biochemical parameters, marine ﬁsh, ice storage
Growth, yield and quality of knol-khol (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes) as affected by fertilizer management
Khulakpam Naseeruddin Shah, Indra Jeet Chaudhary, Deepak Kumar Rana, Vivek Singh
doi: 10.5455/faa.48471 pp: 959-969
A field experiment was conducted during rabi (winter) season of 2016-2017 at Horticultural Research Center, Department of Horticulture, Chauras Campus, HNB Garhwal University, of Uttarakhand to assess the effectiveness of combined dose of organic manure and fertilizer on knol-khol (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes) vegetable crop. The study involved twenty treatments viz., no fertilizer control (T0), recommended doses of fertilizers (RDF) 100% (T1), RDF 50% (T2), Azospirillum (T3), Azotobacter (T4), Neem cake (T5), Chicken manure (T6), RDF 75% + Azospirillum (T7), RDF 75% + Azotobacter (T8), RDF 75% + neem cake (T9), RDF 75% + chicken manure (T10), RDF 50% + Azospirillum (T11), RDF 50% + Azotobacter (T12), RDF 50% + neem cake (T13), RDF 50% + chicken manure (T14), Azospirillum + Azotobacter (T15), Azospirillum + neem cake (T16), Azospirillum + chicken manure (T17), Azotobacter + neem cake (T18), Azotobacter + chicken manure (T19), and neem cake + chicken manure (T20). The results showed that the treatment T7 (RDF 75% + Azospirillum) is more efficient over other treatments in terms of yield. The highest yield was found (61.83% over control) in treatment T7 (RDF 75% + Azospirillum) as compared to control (T0). Different fertilizer-use efficiencies were significantly improved with the application of organic, inorganic and bio-fertilizer over control as well as chemical fertilizer alone. The treatment T7 (RDF 75% + Azospirillum) showed maximum nutrient use efficiency and the minimum value was recorded in T2 (RDF 50%) > T1 (RDF 100%) > T17 (Azospirillum + chicken manure) > T15 (Azospirillum + Azotobacter) > T5 (neem cake) and T0 (control). Study concluded that the combination of organic manure and bio-fertilizer improved the growth and yield of knol-khol (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes) plant. Therefore, the application of organic manure and bio-fertilizers are recommended for knol-khol production.
Keywords: Bio fertilizer, organic manures, growth, yield, Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes
Effects of probiotic supplementation on the growth performance of Thai silver barb (Barbonymus gonionotus) (Bleeker, 1850) fry
Debashis Kumar Mondal, Tanvir Rahman, Sagar Paul, Md Jakiul Islam, Idris Miah
doi: 10.5455/faa.47150 pp: 950-958
A six-week long feeding trial was performed with fifteen rectangular glass aquaria (35 L capacity) containing 180 fish (average weight 1.020.3 g) to evaluate the effects of probiotic supplementation on the growth performance of Thai silver barb, Barbonymus gonionotus fry. The fry were fed twice-a-day at 8-10% of their body weight. Three available commercial probiotics were added with commercial crumbled feed in three forms; (i) feed + 3% ‘Biofav aqua’ (T1), (ii) feed + 3% ‘NavioPlus’ (T2), (iii) feed + 3% ‘Eskalina’ (T3), whereas, water additive probiotic ‘ARIAKE3’ (T4) was added directly to water and feed without probiotics was control (T5). Results revealed that water quality parameters were best in T4 compared to others. Net weight gain (3.46 g), percent weight gain (361.67%), (SGR) (3.63%) and survival (100%) were significantly higher (p<0.01) in T4. FCR (2.06) (p<0.05) and PER (1.34) (p<0.01) were significantly lowest but FCE (0.48) was significantly (p<0.05) highest in T2 compared to others. Control showed lower growth and feed utilization efficiency compared to probiotics supplemented treatments. Whole body protein, lipid and carbohydrate content were also found highest in T4. In the present study, the addition of probiotics in the regular diets significantly increased the growth and survivability of this commercially important fish. However, considering the growth, food efficiency and the water quality index, the water additive probiotic showed more beneficial effects for the monoculture of the selected fish which may be used in commercial farming for better growth performance of B. gonionotus.
Keywords: Thai silver barb, growth performance, probiotics, Bacillus, water quality
Performance of Trichoderma fortified composts in controlling collar rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii of soybean
Roksana Akter, Md Khurshed Alam Bhuiyan, M Mofazzal Hossain, Jannat Rayhanur, Md Abdullahil Baki Bhuiyan
doi: 10.5455/faa.57557 pp: 943-949
Seedling diseases and collar rot/stem rot (Sclerotium rolfsii) are the main constrains for soybean production in Bangladesh. Number of experiments were undertaken to control seedling mortality and stem rot of soybean using Trichoderma fortified compost at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU) research field. Pathogenicity test confirmed that S. rolfsii (isolate SR4) causes 95% seedling mortality therefore, considered as the most aggressive isolate. Trichoderma harzianum (Isolate-Chan 6) was used for inocula preparation with different composting substrates like cow dung, saw dust, rice straw, water hyacinth and poultry manure to prepare Trichoderma fortified composts. Among the composts, Trichoderma fortified poultry manure was found as the best treatment in reducing 75.45% pre- and post-emergence seedling mortality and diseases severity (84.53% reduction) as well as increased yield (80.91% increase) and yield attributing characters such as 55% increase of plant height and 27% increase of 1000-grain weight compared to the control. However, other composts also showed good response in reducing seedling mortality and growth promotion though they were not similar in performance with Trichoderma fortified poultry manure. Therefore, Trichoderma fortified composts have the immense potentiality to suppress diseases and improve yield of soybean. These studies should be conducted at the farmer’s field before validating the substrates as Trichoderma fortified composts.
Keywords: Trichoderma, compost, growth promotion, pathogenicity
Geospatial data assimilation and mapping groundwater vulnerability in high plains aquifer using DRASTIC Model
Sumon Datta, Ali Ajaz
doi: 10.5455/faa.53506 pp: 933-942
High Plains Aquifer is one of the most important aquifers in the United States, accounting for one-fourth of total annual freshwater withdrawal, and one-fifth of crop production of some major crops. But the area above this aquifer has not been extensively researched for determining the risk of groundwater pollution. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the groundwater pollution potential using the DRASTIC model in a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. Despite the limited data availability, DRASTIC model proved effective in delineating areas of High Plains Aquifer susceptible to groundwater contamination. The results from the model indicated that large portions of southwestern Texas, central Kansas, eastern Colorado, easternWyoming, western and north-western Nebraska were highly vulnerable to groundwater pollution whereas Oklahoma had the lowest vulnerability.
Keywords: Irrigation, high plains aquifer, ArcGIS, DRASTIC model, Ogallala aquifer, groundwater vulnerability
Natrisya Nur Abdul Rahman, Rozita Rosli, Saleh Kadzimin, Mansor Hakiman
doi: 10.5455/faa.54779 pp: 928-932
The study was conducted to observe the effect of different concentration and combination of auxin and cytokinin towards the callus induction of Catharanthus roseus. Explants comprising of basal leaf with petioles of Catharanthus roseus were cultured onto MS media supplemented with different types and concentrations of auxins (naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic (2,4-D)) and cytokinins (benzyl amino purine (BAP), and kinetin). Calli produced from explants showed differences in response in each of the treatment combinations. Treatments with kinetin and NAA, BAP with 2,4-D (Experiment B) did not differ significantly. Treatment with 3.0 mg L−1 BAP + 3.0 mg L−1 NAA (Experiment C) gave the highest dry weight (2.776 g) suggesting an optimum level of combination for callus induction.
Keywords: Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don, callus induction, auxin, cytokinin
Nilima Das, Mohammed Mizanur Rahman, Md Touhidul Islam, A K M Adham
doi: 10.5455/faa.45057 pp: 916-927
A study was carried out to evaluate the quality of groundwater and its suitability for irrigation in Durgapur upazila under Netrokona district of Bangladesh. Fifteen groundwater samples were collected from different tubewells and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), major cations like Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ and anions like Cl–, SO42-, PO43-, CO32-, HCO3–. Based on these analyses, irrigation water quality parameters like sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), soluble sodium percentage (SSP), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), total hardness (TH), Kelly’s ratio (KR), permeability index (PI), potential salinity (PS) and salinity and alkalinity hazard were calculated. ArcGIS software was used to show the spatial distribution of different quality parameters across the study area. The groundwater of the study area was mildly acidic. Acidic water was observed in the north-eastern part of the study area. All the groundwater samples were found to be suitable for the irrigation in terms of EC, TDS, SAR, SSP, RSC, TH, KR, PI and PS, and whereas in terms of MAR, 5 samples were in ‘dangerous’ category. High MAR values of groundwater were observed in the north‑western part of the study area. However, in terms of salinity and alkalinity hazard, all of the water samples were categorized as ‘good to excellent’ class for irrigation. Piper diagram showed that Ca2+-Cl– type water was the dominant form of groundwater in the study area. Gibbs diagram indicated that most of the cations and anions had a precipitation dominance origin. Overall for the groundwater samples, PI-PS and SSP–KR had a very strong correlation with a correlation coefficient around 1, and whereas, Ca, Mg, K and MAR showed a negative correlation with most of the variables. The study revealed that the quality of the groundwater of the study area is suitable for irrigation.
Keywords: Groundwater, physico-chemical properties, spatial distribution, irrigation
Bioassay screening of sawdust obtained from selected tropical tree species for allelopathic properties and their field performance against paddy weeds
A K M Mominul Islam, Md Mehedi Hasan, Sabina Yeasmin, Md Anwarul Abedin, Md Abdul Kader, Md Harun Or Rashid, Md Parvez Anwar
doi:10.5455/faa.54326 pp: 906-915
The present study investigated the allelopathic potential of sawdust obtained from eleven tropical tree species available in Bangladesh viz., Azadirachta indica, Swietenia macrophylla, Acacia auriculiformis, Tamarindus indica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Syzygium cumini, Mangifera indica, Albizia saman, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Diospyros discolor and Tectona grandis. Four concentrations of aqueous sawdust ( 1:5, 1:10, 1:15, 1:20 (w/v)) were tested for their potentiality in inhibiting seedling growth of allelopathic sensitive plant Raphanus sativus under laboratory condition. A control (distilled water without extract) was also maintained in each cases. The results of this experiment showed that S. macrophylla, E. camaldulensis, M. indica and A. saman inhibited more than 90% shoot and root growth of R. sativus. The sawdust of these four plant species were selected to evaluate their potentiality in controlling paddy field weeds under filed condition. A total of 16 weed control treatments were considered in the field experiment viz., sawdust of selected four tree plant species at three application rates (1, 2 and 3 t ha−1), manual weeding (three times),chemical control (pre- + post- emergence herbicides), chemical + manual control and season long weedy (control). The results showed that the effect of different sawdust on the weed control varied significantly. Weed growth suppression by the sawdust was increased with the increase in application rate. The results revealed that manual, chemical weed control and application of E. camaldulensis saw dust @ 3 t ha−1 reduced the weed density by 79, 77 and 72%, respectively, and weed biomass by 86, 84 and 79%, respectively. On the other hand, manual weed control offered 100% rice yield increase while chemical control and E. camaldulensis saw dust @ 3 t ha−1 both resulted in 92% rice yield increase over control. Although manual and chemical weed control offered efficient weed control and resulted in higher rice yield, from environmental viewpoint application of E. camaldulensis sawdust @ 3 t ha−1 may be considered for sustainable weed management in rice.
Keywords: Allelopathy, sawdust, tropical tree species, bio-herbicide, weed management
Changes in biochemical and microbiological parameters of Mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) ﬁsh pickle during storage at room temperature
Md Ismail Hossain, Fatema Hoque Shikha, Sanjida Shohan
doi: 10.5455/faa.35406 pp: 898-905
Among small indigenous species (SIS) of fishes Mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) has high nutritive value. Beside traditional curry preparation it is necessary to make available this highly nutritive fish in other “ready to eat” forms and also adding value to this fish. Therefore, this study was carried out to prepare fish pickle with Mola and to observe the changes in biochemical parameters and bacterial load of this pickle stored at room temperature (28°C to 32°C). The study was conducted in the Department of Fisheries Technology Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University. The results of the study showed that, the percent moisture and protein content decreased while lipid and ash content increased after preparation of pickle than those of fresh fishes. The fish pickle stored at room temperature (28°C to 32°C) in sealed and vacuum sealed packing conditions, the percent moisture, protein and lipid content decreased with the progress in storage period gradually but ash content increased. At this temperature (at both sealed and vacuum sealed pack), pH value of the pickle decreased very slowly but the TVB-N value and bacterial load increased gradually throughout the storage period. So, it was concluded that, at room temperature (28°C to 32°C) shelf life of Mola fish pickle was short, pickle may remain in acceptable condition until 12 days in sealed pack and 30 days in vacuum sealed pack.
Keywords: Fish pickle, Amblypharyngodon mola, biochemical parameters, bacterial load, room temperature storage
Pre-storage calcium salts treatment maintained postharvest quality and bioactive compounds of fresh jujube fruit
Farid Moradinezhad, Mehdi Ghesmati, Mehdi Khayat
doi: 10.5455/faa.45660 PP: 890-897
Jujube fruit is quickly damaged and it has a short shelf life in ambient temperature mainly due to senescence and flesh browning. The effects of postharvest calcium salts on quality attributes and physico-chemical characteristics of fresh jujube fruit were investigated with four replications. Fresh jujube fruits at crisp mature (whitish red) stage were picked from a local commercial jujube orchard during early in August in Birjand. Uniform fruits were then selected and immersed in solutions of different calcium sources (calcium chloride, calcium nitrate and calcium sulfate) at two concentrations (0.5 and 1%) or distilled water as control for 5 minutes, air-dried and then stored in cold storage for 50 days. The physico-chemical and sensory quality attributes of fresh fruit were evaluated at the end of storage time. The results showed that weight loss and pH was not influenced by the calcium salt solutions, whereas immersion of jujube fruits in different concentrations of calcium salts had a significant effect on the firmness of the fruit tissue. Calcium salts treatment significantly reduced fruit decay and shrinkage. In addition, postharvest dipping in calcium chloride and calcium nitrate solutions preserved nutritional value (ascorbic acid and total phenolic content) and maintained the sensory quality of fresh jujube fruit. Postharvest calcium salts application preserved the bioactive compounds, quality and improve the overall acceptability of jujube fruit, especially at a concentration of 1% of both salts. However, to determine the proper concentration of calcium salts and the time of dipping treatment for practical applications further studies are required.
Keywords: Ascorbic acid, calcium chloride, calcium nitrate, calcium sulfate, post-harvest dipping
Mohammad Ataur Rahman, Shukdeb Paul, Jiban Krishna Saha
doi: 10.5455/faa.37825 PP: 881-889
Microfinance is being considered as one of the most effective tools of improving the food security and the livelihood. The present study was conducted to analyze the loan profiles, the impact of credit on the livelihood and food security level of the tribal households. The primary data were collected from randomly selected sixty women beneficiaries through the interview schedule in Khagrachari district of Bangladesh. Tabular analysis along with a DFID livelihood framework was used for data analysis. To assess the calorie intake level, seven days consumption data were converted to per person per day calorie intake level. The study showed that the beneficiaries received required amount of loan for different purposes such as petty business, dairy, agribusiness, trading of handicraft, fishery, etc., and they invested their loan money in the productive activities mostly. The loan recovery rate was highly satisfactory. The study also discovered that the assets possession of the households improved after utilizing the loan. The calorie intake level of the sample household members indicated around two-third members were food unsecured. As microfinance showed a positive impact on livelihood; different financial institutions, NGOs, private companies and local and foreign donor agencies should come forward to offer financial help to the tribal community to improve their livelihoods and food security.
Keywords: Food Security, Livelihood, Tribal People, Microfinance, Bangladesh
Estimation of actual crop evapotranspiration and supplemental irrigation for Aman rice cultivation in the northern part of Bangladesh
Rintu Sen, Nazmun Nahar Karim, Md Touhidul Islam, Mohammed Mizanur Rahman, A K M Adham
doi: 10.5455/faa.34264 PP: 873-880
The study was conducted to estimate the trend of actual crop water requirement and supplemental irrigation needed for a popular high yielding aman rice variety, i.e., BR11 grown in Rajshahi and Rangpur districts of northern Bangladesh. The FAO Penman-Monteith method was used to estimate the reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) at four different growth stages of rice. The actual evapotranspiration (ETc) of BR11 rice variety at different growth stages was estimated, and its trend along with that of rainfall was analyzed. The Weibull’s method was employed for performing probability analysis, and the dependable rainfall and ETc at 75% probability level was determined for two different transplanting times and four different growth stages of BR11 for 20 years. It was observed that the rainfall and ETc for the two different transplanting times of BR11 rice varied over the whole growing season in both the districts. After performing the analysis of probability, the supplemental irrigation (SI) was computed for BR11 in both the districts. The study revealed that the SI was required in late-stage for Rajshahi district but, for Rangpur district, it was required in both mid and late stages. The results would be helpful for decision makers as well as for farmers to use water efficiently by understanding the need for ETc and SI for BR11 aman rice cultivation in Bangladesh.
Keywords: Actual evapotranspiration, crop coefficient, rainfall, supplemental irrigation, aman rice