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Volume 4 Issue 3

Effects of auxin and cytokinin on callus induction in Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don

Natrisya Nur Abdul Rahman, Rozita Rosli, Saleh Kadzimin, Mansor Hakiman

doi: 10.5455/faa.54779                         pp: 928-932


The study was conducted to observe the effect of different concentration and combination of auxin and cytokinin towards the callus induction of Catharanthus roseus. Explants comprising of basal leaf with petioles of Catharanthus roseus were cultured onto MS media supplemented with different types and concentrations of auxins (naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic (2,4-D)) and cytokinins (benzyl amino purine (BAP), and kinetin). Calli produced from explants showed differences in response in each of the treatment combinations. Treatments with kinetin and NAA, BAP with 2,4-D (Experiment B) did not differ significantly. Treatment with 3.0 mg L−1 BAP + 3.0 mg L−1 NAA (Experiment C) gave the highest dry weight (2.776 g) suggesting an optimum level of combination for callus induction.

Keywords: Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don, callus induction, auxin, cytokinin


Assessing groundwater suitability for irrigation: A case study for Durgapur upazila of Bangladesh

Nilima Das, Mohammed Mizanur Rahman, Md Touhidul Islam, A K M Adham

doi: 10.5455/faa.45057                         pp: 916-927


A study was carried out to evaluate the quality of groundwater and its suitability for irrigation in Durgapur upazila under Netrokona district of Bangladesh. Fifteen groundwater samples were collected from different tubewells and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), major cations like Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ and anions like Cl, SO42-, PO43-, CO32-, HCO3. Based on these analyses, irrigation water quality parameters like sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), soluble sodium percentage (SSP), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), total hardness (TH), Kelly’s ratio (KR), permeability index (PI), potential salinity (PS) and salinity and alkalinity hazard were calculated. ArcGIS software was used to show the spatial distribution of different quality parameters across the study area. The groundwater of the study area was mildly acidic. Acidic water was observed in the north-eastern part of the study area. All the groundwater samples were found to be suitable for the irrigation in terms of EC, TDS, SAR, SSP, RSC, TH, KR, PI and PS, and whereas in terms of MAR, 5 samples were in ‘dangerous’ category. High MAR values of groundwater were observed in the north‑western part of the study area. However, in terms of salinity and alkalinity hazard, all of the water samples were categorized as ‘good to excellent’ class for irrigation. Piper diagram showed that Ca2+-Cl type water was the dominant form of groundwater in the study area. Gibbs diagram indicated that most of the cations and anions had a precipitation dominance origin. Overall for the groundwater samples, PI-PS and SSP–KR had a very strong correlation with a correlation coefficient around 1, and whereas, Ca, Mg, K and MAR showed a negative correlation with most of the variables. The study revealed that the quality of the groundwater of the study area is suitable for irrigation.

Keywords: Groundwater, physico-chemical properties, spatial distribution, irrigation


Bioassay screening of sawdust obtained from selected tropical tree species for allelopathic properties and their field performance against paddy weeds

A K M Mominul Islam, Md Mehedi Hasan, Sabina Yeasmin, Md Anwarul Abedin, Md Abdul Kader, Md Harun Or Rashid, Md Parvez Anwar

doi:10.5455/faa.54326                     pp: 906-915


The present study investigated the allelopathic potential of sawdust obtained from eleven tropical tree species available in Bangladesh viz., Azadirachta indica, Swietenia macrophylla, Acacia auriculiformis, Tamarindus indica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Syzygium cumini, Mangifera indica, Albizia saman, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Diospyros discolor and Tectona grandis. Four concentrations of aqueous sawdust ( 1:5, 1:10, 1:15, 1:20 (w/v)) were tested for their potentiality in inhibiting seedling growth of allelopathic sensitive plant Raphanus sativus under laboratory condition. A control (distilled water without extract) was also maintained in each cases. The results of this experiment showed that S. macrophylla, E. camaldulensis, M. indica and A. saman inhibited more than 90% shoot and root growth of R. sativus. The sawdust of these four plant species were selected to evaluate their potentiality in controlling paddy field weeds under filed condition. A total of 16 weed control treatments were considered in the field experiment viz., sawdust of selected four tree plant species at three application rates (1, 2 and 3 t ha−1), manual weeding (three times),chemical control (pre- + post- emergence herbicides), chemical + manual control and season long weedy (control). The results showed that the effect of different sawdust on the weed control varied significantly. Weed growth suppression by the sawdust was increased with the increase in application rate. The results revealed that manual, chemical weed control and application of E. camaldulensis saw dust @ 3 t ha−1 reduced the weed density by 79, 77 and 72%, respectively, and weed biomass by 86, 84 and 79%, respectively. On the other hand, manual weed control offered 100% rice yield increase while chemical control and E. camaldulensis saw dust @ 3 t ha−1 both resulted in 92% rice yield increase over control. Although manual and chemical weed control offered efficient weed control and resulted in higher rice yield, from environmental viewpoint application of E. camaldulensis sawdust @ 3 t ha−1 may be considered for sustainable weed management in rice.

Keywords: Allelopathy, sawdust, tropical tree species, bio-herbicide, weed management


Changes in biochemical and microbiological parameters of Mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) fish pickle during storage at room temperature

Md Ismail Hossain, Fatema Hoque Shikha, Sanjida Shohan

doi: 10.5455/faa.35406                     pp: 898-905


Among small indigenous species (SIS) of fishes Mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) has high nutritive value. Beside traditional curry preparation it is necessary to make available this highly nutritive fish in other “ready to eat” forms and also adding value to this fish. Therefore, this study was carried out to prepare fish pickle with Mola and to observe the changes in biochemical parameters and bacterial load of this pickle stored at room temperature (28°C to 32°C). The study was conducted in the Department of Fisheries Technology Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University. The results of the study showed that, the percent moisture and protein content decreased while lipid and ash content increased after preparation of pickle than those of fresh fishes. The fish pickle stored at room temperature (28°C to 32°C) in sealed and vacuum sealed packing conditions, the percent moisture, protein and lipid content decreased with the progress in storage period gradually but ash content increased. At this temperature (at both sealed and vacuum sealed pack), pH value of the pickle decreased very slowly but the TVB-N value and bacterial load increased gradually throughout the storage period. So, it was concluded that, at room temperature (28°C to 32°C) shelf life of Mola fish pickle was short, pickle may remain in acceptable condition until 12 days in sealed pack and 30 days in vacuum sealed pack.

Keywords: Fish pickle, Amblypharyngodon mola, biochemical parameters, bacterial load, room temperature storage


Pre-storage calcium salts treatment maintained postharvest quality and bioactive compounds of fresh jujube fruit

Farid Moradinezhad, Mehdi Ghesmati, Mehdi Khayat

doi: 10.5455/faa.45660                              PP: 890-897


Jujube fruit is quickly damaged and it has a short shelf life in ambient temperature mainly due to senescence and flesh browning. The effects of postharvest calcium salts on quality attributes and physico-chemical characteristics of fresh jujube fruit were investigated with four replications. Fresh jujube fruits at crisp mature (whitish red) stage were picked from a local commercial jujube orchard during early in August in Birjand. Uniform fruits were then selected and immersed in solutions of different calcium sources (calcium chloride, calcium nitrate and calcium sulfate) at two concentrations (0.5 and 1%) or distilled water as control for 5 minutes, air-dried and then stored in cold storage for 50 days. The physico-chemical and sensory quality attributes of fresh fruit were evaluated at the end of storage time. The results showed that weight loss and pH was not influenced by the calcium salt solutions, whereas immersion of jujube fruits in different concentrations of calcium salts had a significant effect on the firmness of the fruit tissue. Calcium salts treatment significantly reduced fruit decay and shrinkage. In addition, postharvest dipping in calcium chloride and calcium nitrate solutions preserved nutritional value (ascorbic acid and total phenolic content) and maintained the sensory quality of fresh jujube fruit. Postharvest calcium salts application preserved the bioactive compounds, quality and improve the overall acceptability of jujube fruit, especially at a concentration of 1% of both salts. However, to determine the proper concentration of calcium salts and the time of dipping treatment for practical applications further studies are required.

Keywords: Ascorbic acid, calcium chloride, calcium nitrate, calcium sulfate, post-harvest dipping


Food security and livelihood of tribal people in Bangladesh: The role of microfinance

Mohammad Ataur Rahman, Shukdeb Paul, Jiban Krishna Saha

doi: 10.5455/faa.37825                              PP: 881-889


Microfinance is being considered as one of the most effective tools of improving the food security and the livelihood. The present study was conducted to analyze the loan profiles, the impact of credit on the livelihood and food security level of the tribal households. The primary data were collected from randomly selected sixty women beneficiaries through the interview schedule in Khagrachari district of Bangladesh. Tabular analysis along with a DFID livelihood framework was used for data analysis. To assess the calorie intake level, seven days consumption data were converted to per person per day calorie intake level. The study showed that the beneficiaries received required amount of loan for different purposes such as petty business, dairy, agribusiness, trading of handicraft, fishery, etc., and they invested their loan money in the productive activities mostly. The loan recovery rate was highly satisfactory. The study also discovered that the assets possession of the households improved after utilizing the loan. The calorie intake level of the sample household members indicated around two-third members were food unsecured. As microfinance showed a positive impact on livelihood; different financial institutions, NGOs, private companies and local and foreign donor agencies should come forward to offer financial help to the tribal community to improve their livelihoods and food security.

Keywords: Food Security, Livelihood, Tribal People, Microfinance, Bangladesh


Estimation of actual crop evapotranspiration and supplemental irrigation for Aman rice cultivation in the northern part of Bangladesh

Rintu Sen, Nazmun Nahar Karim, Md Touhidul Islam, Mohammed Mizanur Rahman, A K M Adham

doi: 10.5455/faa.34264                              PP: 873-880


The study was conducted to estimate the trend of actual crop water requirement and supplemental irrigation needed for a popular high yielding aman rice variety, i.e., BR11 grown in Rajshahi and Rangpur districts of northern Bangladesh. The FAO Penman-Monteith method was used to estimate the reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) at four different growth stages of rice. The actual evapotranspiration (ETc) of BR11 rice variety at different growth stages was estimated, and its trend along with that of rainfall was analyzed. The Weibull’s method was employed for performing probability analysis, and the dependable rainfall and ETc at 75% probability level was determined for two different transplanting times and four different growth stages of BR11 for 20 years. It was observed that the rainfall and ETc for the two different transplanting times of BR11 rice varied over the whole growing season in both the districts. After performing the analysis of probability, the supplemental irrigation (SI) was computed for BR11 in both the districts. The study revealed that the SI was required in late-stage for Rajshahi district but, for Rangpur district, it was required in both mid and late stages. The results would be helpful for decision makers as well as for farmers to use water efficiently by understanding the need for ETc and SI for BR11 aman rice cultivation in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Actual evapotranspiration, crop coefficient, rainfall, supplemental irrigation, aman rice