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Volume 4 Issue 1

Screening of Sorghum genotypes for salt-tolerance based on seed germination and seedling stage

Ashaduzzaman Sagar, Jannat E Tajkia, Md. Eakramul Haque, Md. Solaiman Ali Fakir, A.K.M Zakir Hossain

>>doi: 10.5455/faa.18483        >>PP: 735-743


Soil salinity is an increasing problem in the world and main obstacle to agricultural productivity especially in areas where irrigation is necessary. Adoption of salt tolerant genotype is more important here and so screening of salt tolerant genotypes by quick method, particularly in early stages of their growth is essential. Some laboratory studies using nine sorghum genotypes were conducted to screen salt tolerant genotypes during germination and seedling growth stages. The genotypes were Hybrid sorgo, Debgiri, BD 703, BD 706, BD 707, BD 713, BD 720, BD 725 and BD 738 and salinity levels were 0 dS m−1 (control), 6 dS m−1, 12 dS m−1 and 18 dS m−1. There were 36 (9× 4) treatments in a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. Saline treatments were imposed by sea water. To screen out the salt-tolerant genotypes-germination percentage, rate of germination, vigor index and different physiological parameters i.e. germination stress tolerance index (GSTI), root length stress tolerance index (RLSI), shoot length stress tolerance index (SLSI) and fresh weight stress tolerance index (FSTI) were studied. In this study, all the parameters were decreased with increasing salinity. Results showed that sorghum genotypes Hybrid sorgo, BD 703 and BD 707 were categorized as tolerant while Debgiri and BD 713 were as sensitive ones. Besides these, sorghum genotypes were not tolerant up to 18dS m−1 though some of them were tolerant at 12 dS m−1. Overall, these tolerant and sensitive genotypes might be used in the further genetic improvement of the same and different crops.

Keywords: Sorghum, cereal, salinity, osmotic stress, sea water, physiological indices


Mechanical and osmotic dehydration behavior of pineapple and retention of Vitamin C

Rownok Jahan, Md. Ahmadul Islam, Farzana Akter, Md. Abdul Alim, Md. Nazrul Islam

>>doi: 10.5455/faa.15862        >>PP: 723-734


The study was designed to observe the behavior of mechanical and osmotic dehydration of pineapple, retention of vitamin C content during drying and development of jam from fresh and dehydrated pineapple. Osmotic dehydration carried out with pineapples collected from local market of Mymensingh in July 2015 and found that pineapples contained higher moisture content (93.9%,wb) than normal (85-87%,wb) and showed contradictory osmotic behavior due to higher moisture content and hormonal effect. Then the studies were conducted using pineapples of Gaint Kew variety collected from Madhupur without hormone treatment which contained 86.11% moisture, 0.36% ash, 13.89% total solid, 0.54% protein and 17.38 mg 100g−1 vitamin C. The osmotic concentration behavior was investigated using sugar and combined sugar-salt solution for 6 mm thick pineapple slices and immersion time was 6 hr. The extent of water loss, solid gain and normalized solid content were strongly influenced by strength of osmotic solution. It was found that K-value (mass transfer coefficient) increases with increasing concentration and was the highest (0.15 min−1) for 55/5% sugar/salt solution and lowest (0.07 min−1) for 45% sugar solution. Three different temperatures (55, 60 and 65 °C) and thicknesses (4, 6 and 8 mm) were used to investigate the drying behavior of pineapple slices in a mechanical dryer. Activation energy value of 8.14 Kcal g-mole−1 was found for fresh pineapple slices. 55/5% sugar/salt osmosed and dried pineapple gave 5.46 times higher dryer throughput compared to nonosmosed dried pineapple. Degradation of vitamin C content of pineapple at different air-dry bulb temperatures (55, 60 and 65 °C) of 6 mm thickness was investigated and activation energy for degradation of vitamin C was found to be 14.38 Kcal g-mole−1. Osmotic dehydration prior to air drying, gave the lower rate of degradation of vitamin C during drying compared to that dried without osmosis. Developed jams were tested for their acceptability by sensory evaluation using 1-9 point hedonic scale and jam made from osmotically dehydrated (55/5% sugar-salt and then dried at 60°C) secured highest score (8.5) and ranked as ‘like very much’, while the other products were ranked as ‘like moderately’.

Keywords: Dehydration, osmosis, activation energy, vitamin C, jam


Hydrogen peroxide priming alleviates chilling stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by enhancing oxidant scavenging capacity

Sonya Afrin, Md Tahjib-Ul-Arif, Md Arif Sakil, Abdullah Al Mamun Sohag, Mohammed Arif Sadik Polash, M Afzal Hossain

>>doi: 10.5455/faa.13554        >>PP: 713-722


Chilling is a substantial stressor for plants. In fact, some biochemical reactions involved in growth and development of plant are sensitive to temperature. In particular, chilling stress represents a severe issue for plant growth and productivity and strategies to alleviate the stress is an important goal for agriculturists. While, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) acts as a signaling molecule and its role in preventing several abiotic stresses like heat, salinity, drought etc. is well understood. Thus, the present study tested the effects of H2O2 priming in mitigation of chilling stress at germination and seedling stage of rice. The rice seeds were treated with H2O2 (5, 10 and 15 mM H2O2) solution for 24 h and exposed to chilling stress either for 6 h d−1 or 12 h d−1 for 7 days. Results revealed that, chilling stress seriously impeded germination indices (germination percentage, germination rate index, coefficient of velocity of germination and mean germination time), morphological parameters (shoot length, root length and fresh weight), total chlorophyll content and antioxidant enzymes (catalase and ascorbate peroxidase) activity. On the other hand, priming with H2O2 (5 mM, 10 mM and 15 mM) displayed protective effects on germination indices and growth parameters and conferred a significant tolerance against chilling stress. Priming with H2O2 also significantly protected chlorophyll from chilling-induced degradation. Our results provide a strong foundation that priming with H2O2 confers a positive physiological effect by enhancing antioxidant enzymes capability (increased catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activity) of chilling stressed rice plant. Among the concentrations, 10 mM H2O2 performed relatively better in chilling stress alleviation. Therefore, this technique can be used for improved rice seedling production in northern part of Bangladesh under low temperature condition.

Keywords: Antioxidant enzymes, chilling stress, cold injury, germination indices, rice seedling, Bangladesh


The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the bioprotection of ash gourd (Benincasa hispida) against damping off disease

Md Raihan Talukder, Animesh Sarkar, Md Harun Rashid

>>doi: 10.5455/faa.6098        >>PP: 704-712


This experiment was aimed to determine the capacity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation to control the damping off disease of ash gourd (Benincasa hispida) seedlings caused by Sclerotium rolfsii, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani. The virulent strains of S. rolfsii, F. oxysporum and R. solani were isolated before setting the experiment for inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhiza with ash gourd. AMF was collected from the rhizosphere of trap crop sorghum. Seedlings inoculated with AMF had significantly lower incidence (p<0.05) of damping off disease than non-mycorrhizal plants. Growth parameters of ash gourd plants inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi significantly (p<0.05) increased than those of non-mycorrhizal plants. Inoculation of pathogenic strain significantly reduced the plant height, root length, root and shoot weight (all p<0.05) than untreated control. Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhiza in ash gourd plant and mycorrhizal spore density in soil were also higher in AMF inoculated treatment than non-inoculated cases. Inoculation with root infecting pathogen significantly reduced the root colonization and spore density of mycorrhiza. Therefore, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can be used in ash gourd against damping off disease.

Keywords: AMF, damping off disease, growth, ash gourd, vegetables


Rice genotypic variation in methane emission patterns under irrigated culture

M Rafiqul Islam, Imran Ahammad Siddique, Md Haidar Ali, Md Rafiqul Islam, Abdullah Al Mahmud

>>doi: 10.5455/faa.10569        >>PP: 693-703


Anthropogenic emission of methane under anaerobic condition of irrigated rice field is a global concern contributing to global warming more than any other greenhouse gases. A field experiment was conducted with eight rice genotypes to identify the genotype(s) with low methane emission coupled with high yielding potential. Emissions of methane were measured from all treatments using manual operated closed chamber technique following standard guidelines and CH4 concentrations in the collected air samples were measured by gas chromatography. Methane emissions during different growth stages of rice ranged between 43.6 and 579.2 mg CH4 m−2 d−1 and showed a higher emission at maximum tillering to flowering stages, while peaks in CH4 fluxes were observed in 67 DAT for short duration and 84 DAT in long duration rice genotypes. Root biomass and growth duration showed significant positive correlation with methane emission (p<0.01), but above ground biomass had no significant effect on methane emission. The highest cumulative CH4 emission (257.6 kg CH4 ha−1) was noted in BRRI dhan29 having grain yield of 6.55 t ha−1, while the lowest (158.9 kg CH4 ha−1) was found in local variety, Kheyaliboro having grain yield of 3.04 t ha−1. Kheyaliboro showed lower methane emission but the lower grain yield contributed to the higher yield scaled methane emission. While quantifying yield scaled methane emission, considering the national food security, eight rice genotypes followed the order: Kheyaliboro>BR16>Binadhan-6>BRRI dhan29>Binadhan-10>BRRI dhan28>BRRI dhan55>Binadhan-17. Yield scaled methane emission decreased by 14-45% in response to different rice genotypes. Employing yield scaled methane emission can address both climate change and national food demand.

Keywords: Growth duration, biomass yield, grain yield, yield scaled methane emission


Insect infested agarwood: a newly prized product of agarwood market in Bangladesh

Md Najmol Hoque, Md Fuad Mondal,Mohammad Mehedi

>>doi: 10.5455/faa.1693        >>PP: 689-692


Agarwood is a highly prized product in perfumery world. Insect infested wood demands higher price than other exported agarwoods. A comparative analysis was made among three categories of agarwood viz. white wood, screw injected agarwood and insect infested agarwood to evaluate the ether extract and total phenolic contents. The wood samples were collected from Sylhet region of Bangladesh. The ether extract oil contents were 1.80%, 20.49% and 11.08% for white wood, screw injected wood and insect  infested wood, respectively. Total phenolic contents were 2.55 mg g−1, 3.6 mg g−1 and 2.97 mg g−1 from white wood, screw injected wood and insect infested wood, respectively. Fungal attack following the insect infestation may have a positive effect on the quality of agar products. Further study is recommended to understand how insect infestation improves the quality of agar product.

Keywords: Agarwood, insect infestation, ether extract, phenol content, market price


Survival and transmission of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in rice seeds

Sony Mondal, Md Emran Hossien, Mst Arjina Akter, Md Mahbubul Haque, Md Ayub Ali, Md Rashidul Islam

>>doi: 10.5455/faa.294248        >>PP: 680-688


Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is a major pathogen of rice that causes bacterial leaf blight (BLB) disease and is a great threat to rice production worldwide. Transmission of X. oryzae pv. oryzae from seed to seed is remain in enigma. In this study, seed transmission was investigated to detect and identified X. oryzae pv. oryzae in rice seeds of BR11 collected from the naturally BLB infected field and the transmission of X. oryzae pv. oryzae from seed to plant to seed during November, 2014 to November, 2015 at Seed Pathology Centre, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. The results indicated the survival ability of X. oryzae pv. oryzae for one season to another for at least 10 months but the survivability of the bacterium decreased with the increasing of storage time. The transmission of X. oryzae pv. oryzae was carried out through transplanting of the seedlings raised from the infected seeds. X. oryzae pv. oryzae was then detected in the seeds harvested from the infected plants raised from the seedlings produced from the previously harvested BLB infected seeds. These results clearly indicated the transmission of X. oryzae pv. oryzae from seed to plant to seed carryover at least from one season to another.

Keywords: Seed, transmission, rice, bacterial leaf blight


Grain growth and yield potential of wheat genotypes under late sown heat stressed condition

Joyanti Ray, Jalal Uddin Ahmed

>>doi: 10.5455/faa.1122         >>PP: 671-679


This open field experiment was conducted to evaluate adaptation of wheat genotypes in late seeded heat stress condition. Grain growth, yield components and yield of four wheat genotypes (BARI gom 25, BARI gom 26, BAW 1135 and Pavon 76) was determined at different sowing dates. Sowing on 29 November was considered as normal growing period with a mean air temperature 24.08 ◦C during the post anthesis stages. Mean temperature was as high as 28.4 ◦C on 30 December sowing which is heat stress condition for wheat. Under stress condition (30 December sowing), BARI gom 25 and BARI gom 26 continued to increase grain dry matter upto 32 DAA which stopped 8 days earlier in Pavon 76. Under post anthesis heat stress condition higher relative spike number per m2 (92%), higher relative grain number per spike (92%) and higher relative 1000-grain weight (96%) were exhibited in BARI gom 26 compared to Pavon 76. Higher yield reduction was recorded in Pavon 76 (78.06 kg ha-1day-1) compared BARI gom 26 (19.36 kg ha-1day-1) on 30 December sowing. In terms of grain growth and seed yield, BARI gom 26 was found to be superior variety for growing under warmer environment

Keywords: Heat stress, wheat, grain growth, yield, sowing dates


Studies on the performance of UC Davis chimney dryer on drying of jackfruit leather

Halima Khatun, Md Abdur Rahim, Md Ashraful Islam

>>Abstract        >>doi: 10.5455/faa.298497         >>PP: 661-670


An observation on the performance of UC (University of California) Davis chimney dryer on drying of leather was carried out at BAU–GPC, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during February 2017-October 2017. Puree juice was prepared from two jackfruit varieties (viz. BAU Kathal–1, BAU Kathal–2) and placed on dryer trays with 0.50 cm and 1.0 cm thickness. The pureed juice was dried under two conditions, viz. UC Davis chimney dryer or at open condition with net (control). Required times to dry the jackfruit leather were significantly less (8.25 days) under UCD condition than that with net condition (12.75 days). Higher dry matter content (15.84%), final TSS (38.17 Brix%), storage time (247.75 days) were found in UCD than the those of net condition (13.67%, 0.00% and 24.42 days, respectively). Relative humidity and moisture content were higher (61.25% and 86.33%, respectively) in open with net than the UCD (44.79% and 84.16%, respectively). Leather thickness of 0.50 cm required less time (9.33 days) to dry than those with 1.0 cm thickness (11.67 days). Higher dry matter (18.22%) and longer storage (137.42 days) were observed with 0.50 cm leathers than those of 1.0 cm thick leather (11.29% and 134.75 days, respectively). The panel test confirmed higher quality of jackfruit leather (55.00% aroma, 57.0% color and 51.0% taste) under UCD than open with net condition (35.83%, 34.0% and 33.34%, respectively). Leather thickness of 0.50 cm gave higher values in panel test (50.0% aroma, 47.50% color and 48.00% taste) than those with 1.0 cm (40.48%, 44.00% and 36.33% respectively) thickness of jackfruit leather.

Keywords: UC Davis chimney dryer, variety, jackfruit leather, storage


Response of mungbean varieties to boron fertilization

Sania Afrin Tania, FM Jamil Uddin, Md Abdur Rahman Sarkar

>>doi: 10.5455/faa.815         >>PP: 655-660


This experiment was carried out during the period of March-June 2016 to evaluate the influence of variety and boron levels on the growth and yield performance of four summer mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) varieties. The experimental treatments consisted of four mungbean varieties viz. BARI Mung-2, BARI Mung-6, Binamung-5 and Binamung-7 and four doses of boron viz. 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kg ha-1. The experiment was arranged by randomized complete block design and replicated thrice. Variety BARI Mung-6 showed superiority to other varieties regarding pods plant-1, pod length, and 1000-grains weight which resulted in the highest seed yield (1.86 t ha-1). The lowest pods plant-1 in Binamung-7, pods length and 1000- grain weight in BARI Mung-2, number of grains pod-1, and seed yield (1.25 t ha-1) stover yield and harvest index were found in Binamung-5. Results revealed that the one kg ha-1 was superior to other doses of boron in respect of pods plant-1, pod length, number of grains pod-1, 1000- grain weight, seed yield, and stover yield as well as harvest index. The lowest seed yield (0.87 t ha-1) was found from control treatment. Variety BARI Mung-6 was grown with 1 kg ha-1 boron showed best performance to other interactions of variety and boron doses regarding pod length, number of pods plant-1, number of grains pod-1, number of grains plant-1, 1000- grain weight and seed yield (1.66 t ha-1).

Keywords: Mungbean, variety, boron, yield


Isolation and identification of Clostridium chauvoei from cattle in Mymensingh

Md Nur Alam, Md Muket Mahmud, Jannatun Nime, Roknuzzaman Khan, Md Shahidur Rahman Khan, Md Bahanur Rahman, K H M Nazmul Hussain Nazir

>>doi: 10.5455/faa.2733         >>PP: 649-654


Black quarter (BQ), caused by Clostridium chauvoei, is an economically important, highly infectious bacterial disease of cattle, goat and sheep. The present study was conducted to isolate and identify the causal agent of BQ from field cases. A total of 32 samples from necropsied areas suspected cattle brought to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh were collected. The samples were subjected for bacteriological culture followed by identification through a series of conventional bacteriological techniques, staining properties and biochemical tests. The bacteria were cultured in anaerobic condition using candle jar. Morphological characters of bacteria were observed after Gram stain. The suspected samples were subjected for several passages in liver infusion broth to get pure culture. On neomycin blood agar, the bacteria showed hemolysis. Based on the cultural and staining characteristics and biochemical tests, 4 (12.5%) out of 32 samples were confirmed as Cl. chauvoei. It is concluded that Cl. chauvoei has been successfully isolated and identified from BQ affected cattle.

Keywords: Black quarter, Clostridium chauvoei, Neomycin blood agar, Liver infusion broth, Cattle


Effect of seed rate on yield performance of dry direct seeded winter rice

Md Moshiur Rahman, Md Mehedi Masood, Md Abdur Rahman Sarkar

>>doi: 10.5455/faa.4469         >>PP: 642-648


Seedling transplanting on puddled soil is the conventional and most popular method of rice establishment but water scarcity is posing a serious threat to this system of rice cultivation in boro season. Dry direct seeding (DDS) is an alternative rice establishment technology which helps cultivation of rice using 50-70% less irrigation water. Sowing of seeds at 25 cm × 15 cm spacing allocating 4-5 seeds hill-1 by hand is considered as the best practice for dry seeding. Hand sowing is laborious, tedious and expensive and therefore hand sowing would not be feasible as the labour unavailability and wage rate has been increased manifolds in the country. Therefore, there is need of evaluating the yield performance of line sown dry seeded rice at various seeding rates to standardize seed rate for the machine sowing. Two mega rice varieties for winter (boro) season viz. BRRI dhan28 and BRRI dhan29 were cultivated at five seeding rates from 30 to 70 kg ha-1 and also spaced seeding at 25 cm× 15 cm using 30 kg seed ha-1 as control. The result reveals that among the seeding rates the highest yield was obtained from 50 kg seed ha-1 but this was significantly lower than that obtained from 25 cm× 15 cm spacing with 30 kg seed ha-1. Therefore, considering both the yield and labour cost, dry direct seeding could be practiced with continuous seeding at 25 cm apart rows using 50 kg seed ha-1.

Keywords: Water scarcity, puddle transplanting, winter rice, seed rate, yield


Evaluation of groundwater quality for irrigation and drinking purposes in Barishal district of Bangladesh

Gulshan Yasmin, Deen Islam, Md Touhidul Islam, Md Shariot-Ullah, A K M Adham

>>doi: 10.5455/faa.301258         >>PP: 632-641



A study was conducted to evaluate the quality of groundwater in Barishal district of Bangladesh for both irrigation and drinking purposes. Sixty water samples were collected and analyzed in the Biochemistry laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University for the assessment of their quality based on a number of parameters, viz. total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), Kelly’s ratio (KR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), soluble sodium percentage (SSP), pH and magnesium absorption ratio (MAR), salinity and alkalinity hazard, total cation and anion. Most of the water samples were found as acceptable in terms of TDS, EC, SAR and TH values, but unacceptable based on pH. Though the water samples were demonstrated as ‘good’ and ‘satisfactory’ water class in terms of SSP and KR, respectively, they were categorized as ‘harmful’ water class in term of MAR. However, in terms of salinity and alkalinity hazard, most of the water samples were found as ‘good water’ class for irrigation. In case of drinking purpose, most of the samples were found as ‘permissible’, ‘good’ and ‘safe’ based on EC, pH, and TDS, respectively. Though the samples were demonstrated as ‘suitable’ and ‘good’ water class in terms of TH and nitrate, respectively, they were classified as ‘unsatisfactory’ based on sulphate. Overall for the groundwater samples, SSP–KR and pH–TH had a very strong correlation with a correlation coefficient around 1, and EC, TH and pH showed a negative correlation with most of the parameters. The study revealed that the quality of groundwater for most of the locations in the area was permissible and good for irrigation and drinking purposes.

Keywords: Groundwater, irrigation, drinking water, quality parameters


Effects of nutrient management and netting on growth and yield of okra

Shirin Akhter, M Ashraful Islam, Md Rezaul Karim

>>doi: 10.5455/faa.302744         >>PP: 627-631



The experiment was conducted on the growth and yield of okra using nutrient management through different types of fertilizers and netting at the Horticulture Farm of Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh. There were netting treatments, viz. N1 = Control (no net) and N2= Net (blue color) along with fertilizer treatments viz. T1 = no fertilizer (control), T2 = vermicompost @ 10 t ha−1, T3 = vermicompost @ 15 t ha−1, T4 = combined application of 2/3 part organic (T3) and 1/3 part inorganic (T5), and T5 = inorganic fertilizers. Temperature (◦C) and relative humidity (%) were recorded under net and at the open condition daily during production stage (month of May) However, the value didn’t differ significantly. Growth parameters of okra viz. plant height, pod length, pod diameter, and pods of okra were found the highest from T4N2 treatment combination which was significantly higher from other combinations. The lowest growth and yield of okra was found from the treatment combination of T1N1. First flowering was observed in T4N2 at 32 days after planting of okra seeds. Vermicompost at different rates (10 t ha−1 and 15 t ha−1) with net gave lower production of okra compared to inorganic fertilizer treatments with net. The highest yield of okra (19.65 t ha−1) was found from the combined effect of T4N2 which was 56.74% higher compared to control (T1N1).

Keywords: Okra, vermicompost, fertilizer, net, growth, yield


Present scenario and problem confrontation of rooftop gardening and its efficacy in ambient environment reclamation in Khulna City of Bangladesh

Manabika Sheel, M Bashir Ahmed, S A Kamal Uddin Khan, M Matiul Islam

>>doi: 10.5455/faa.2656         >>PP: 617-626



In the urban area there is scarce space for planting trees and cultivating agricultural plants. Rooftop gardening might be an alternative to overcome this land scarcity. The present study analyzes the scenario of rooftop gardening, its problem confrontation and its effects on the surroundings. Nirala and Sonadanga area of Khulna city of Bangladesh were purposively selected for the study from where a total of 60 rooftop gardens were randomly selected for face-to-face interview with a pre-tested interview schedule during the period of 15 March to 20 April, 2018. Results showed that majority of the rooftop gardeners belonged to the group of old age (40%), undergrad and above level of education (61.6%) and small family size (55%) with high annual income (41.7%). Majority of them had low experience (40%), but high knowledge (76.7%) on rooftop gardening. Besides, 58.3% respondents had no organizational participation along with seldom extension contact (66.7%) and seldom cosmopoliteness (81.7%). More than half of the respondents (65%) had small size (≤1000 ft2) roof area suitable for gardening. The rooftop gardeners earned very poor economic benefit from the garden compared to bearing large expenditure for it. Most of the respondents preferred rooftop garden as a hobby (98.3%) and aesthetics (90%). Again, 51.7% respondents considered it as an aspect of ecological balance. Vegetables (16.6%) and flowers (12.5%) were the most dominating plants in the study area for rooftop gardens. Main intercultural operations included irrigation, weeding, training/pruning and control of insects and diseases. Commonly faced insects were ant, mealy bug and green leaf hopper with the diseases of die back, viral disease, leaf curling and leaf scorching. Common fertilizers used in the study area were cow dung, compost, urea, muriate of potash and sesame cake. Excessive heat (91.7%), lack of proper nourishment (87.1%) and roof load (72.9%) were the most severe problems. Among the 9 selected characteristics only age of the respondents showed significant positive relationship with problem confrontation. Besides, weather parameters showed positive impacts in case of green roof than empty roof. Thus, the overall results indicate great contributions of rooftop gardening in urban areas in terms of environmental reclamation.

Keywords: Rooftop gardening, present scenario, prospect, environment