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Volume 3 Issue 2

Development of breeding strategy based on body coloration and phenotype in Holstein Friesian crossbreds for sustainable milk production

Md Shahjahan

>>doi: 10.5455/faa.297335       >>PP: 498-504


In this study, Holstein Friesian crossbreds were categorized based on white coloring in different body parts, hump status, and known generations derived from controlled breeding and recording. The aim of this study was to reveal the effects of morphological features on milk production; grading of Holstein Friesian crossbreds and implement a sustainable breeding strategy based on phenotypic grading. Data of peak milk production and morphological characteristics were collected on 51 Holstein Friesian crossbred cows after primary sorting from three districts (Sirajganj, Chittagong and Mymensingh) of Bangladesh. The data analyses were conducted following one-way ANOVA with descriptive statistics. The animals were graded according to the white coloring pattern (absent or present) in horn, eyelid and eyelash, muzzle, hoof, tail switch, and the presence of a hump. It was observed that the presence of white color (18.86±1.01 to 22.00±1.57 liters) in different body parts of Holstein Friesian crossbreds were significantly (p<0.001) associated with higher milk production compared to the absent group (8.95±1.62 to 13.84±1.21 liters). Average peak milk production for humpless cows was 15.89±1.16 liters, compared to 4.8±0.58 liters for humped cows. The grading of cows based on white coloring and hump status showed significant differences (p<0.001) in milk production, but the production between medium and higher graded cows were not varied significantly. White color was not found in all studied body parts for lower graded cows while its frequency increased in medium graded (up to 75%) and almost full in higher graded cows except eyelid and eyelash (66.7% white). To prove the above findings, another 10 Holstein females with known genetics of exotic inheritance were evaluated for the same clarifications as reference population and similar trends were revealed with respect to the increasing of white color frequency from the F1 generation (66.7% in hoof and 50% in tail switch) to F2 (25% in horn, 25% in muzzle, and 75% in hoof and tail switch), including 100% humpless characters. It is concluded that milk production varied according to coloring patterns in different body parts and three selected grades and these phenotypic grading-based planned breeding strategies could retain the exotic inheritance level in Holstein Friesian crossbreds.

Keywords: Exotic inheritance, color, dairy cows, genetic admixture, sustainable


Effect of nutrient and weed management strategies on the yield performance of boro rice cv. BRRI dhan63

Md Ariful Islam, Md Abdur Rahman Sarkar, Md Abdul Kader, Nilufar Akhtar Jahan

>>doi: 10.5455/faa.299242       >>PP: 491-497


An experiment was conducted to study the yield components and yield of Boro rice (cv. BRRI dhan63) under different nutrient and weed management strategies. The experiment was laid out in a two factor randomized complete block design with three replications consisting of four nutrient management strategies viz. cowdung 10 t ha−1, recommended dose of chemical fertilizer (urea, triple super phosphate, muriate of potash, gypsum and zinc sulphate @ 258, 101, 120, 113 and 11.5 kg ha−1, respectively), 75% recommended dose of chemical fertilizer + cowdung 5 t ha−1 and 50% recommended dose of chem- ical fertilizer + cowdung 10 t ha−1; and five weed management strategies viz. weedy check, hand weeding twice at 15 and 30 days after transplanting (DAT), pre-emergence herbicide Panida at 3 DAT, post-emergence herbicide Granite at 10 DAT and Panida at 3 DAT + Granite at 10 DAT. Yield compo- nents and yield of Boro rice cv. BRRI dhan63 were significantly influenced by nutrient and weed management strategies. Application of 75% recom- mended dose of chemical fertilizer + cowdung 5 t ha−1 showed the highest values for all yield components and produced the highest grain yield (6.24 t ha−1) while among the weed management strategies, Panida at 3 DAT + Granite at 10 DAT produced the highest grain yield (6.39 t ha−1) and the interaction of this two treatments also produced the highest grain yield (6.97 t ha−1). Among the different nutrient management strategies, cowdung 10 t ha−1 produced the lowest values of most of the yield contributing characters and grain yield (4.92 t ha−1) while in case of weed management strategies weedy check produced the lowest grain yield (4.55 t ha−1) and the interac- tion of this two treatments also produced the lowest grain yield (4.05 t ha−1). Therefore, it can be concluded that 75% recommended dose of chemical fertilizer + cowdung 5 t ha−1 combined with Panida at 3 DAT + Granite at 10 DAT can be practiced for the cultivation of Boro rice cv. BRRI dhan63 to obtain the highest grain yield.

Keywords: Cowdung, granite, herbicide, panida, post-emergence, pre- emergence


Phytotoxic effect of synthetic dye effluents on seed germination and early growth of red amaranth

Md Arifur Rahman, Md Yeasinul Haque Rayhan, Md Akhter Hossain Chowdhury, K M Mohiuddin, Md Abul Khair Chowdhury

>>doi: 10.5455/faa.299239       >>PP: 480-490


Among the industrial chemical wastes, the effluents of loom-dyeing industry raise great concern in recent times because of their diverse environmental hazards. A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the phytotoxic effect of different loom-dye effluents on seed germination and early seedling growth of red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) in the Department of Agricultural Chemistry of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during May to August, 2017. Results revealed that the physico-chemical parameters of loom-dye effluent such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), sulphate, phosphate, sodium, potassium, iron, manganese and lead concentrations were relatively higher than the suggested range. On the other hand, the concentrations of calcium, zinc, copper and cadmium were relatively lower. Germination experiment of red amaranth
were done in sterilized petridishes containing 0, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% concentrations of three different types of untreated loom-dyeing effluents following completely randomized design. Three replications were used for each treatment. The germination energy and capacity, growth parameters
like root and shoot length, relative toxicity, seedling vigour and phytotoxicity on seed germination of red amaranth in response to different loom-dyeing effluents at various concentrations were also calculated. There was a gradual lessening in the percentage of seed germination and seedling growth with increased concentration of effluents. Relative toxicity and phytotoxicity was extreme at 100% effluent concentration. Different growth parameters such as root and shoot lengths of seedlings was minimum at 100% and maximum at 5% dye effluent concentration. Overall results indicate that pink dye effluent
was less toxic to the germination and early growth of red amaranth than violet and black dyes. For most of the growth parameters of red amaranth, the order of phytotoxicity among the loom-dye effluent was black > violet > pink.

Keywords:  Germination energy, phytotoxicity, dye effluent, relative toxicity, vigour index


Improvement of power tiller operated seeder for maize planting

Muhammad Arshadul Hoque, Mahesh Kumar Gathala

>>doi: 10.5455/faa.293468       >>PP: 474-479


Prime energy source of agriculture in Bangladesh is two-wheel tractor (commonly known as power tiller). Power tiller operated seeder (PTOS) with fluted roller type metering device are adopting by the farmers. These seeders could not be used for planting maize. An initiative was taken to improve the seeder for maize planting during 2014-15 at RARS, BARI, Jamalpur. A simple maize conversion kit was developed and attached to the seeder for planting maize. The modified seeder was evaluated in the field and found that desired seed spacing (20 cm) and uniformity (98%) could be achieved. Modified PTOS was tested for full tillage (yield 8.62 t/ha) and strip tillage (yield 8.51 t/ha) comparing with conventional method where machine planting maize gave higher yield than the conventional (8.31 t/ha). Further study is needed to use this for other crops.

Keywords: Power tiller operated seeder, mechanization, maize planting, modified seeder, farm implement


Determination of feeding performance of mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) on different mustard varieties at water stress condition

GM Morshedul Bari, Masum Ahmad, Md Rashedur Rahman

>>doi: 10.5455/faa.290184       >>PP: 467-473


The more feeding of plant sap by aphid, the more secretion of honeydew. Determination of the amount of honeydew secreted by aphids in a specific crop variety is one of the best ways to assess the susceptibility of aphid infestation to the variety. An experiment was conducted in glass house and controlled growth room of Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA) at 25 ◦ C, RH 65–70% and 12:12 hrs daylight on 15 November 2016. Six mustard varieties were evaluated to determine the intensity of honeydew excretion by aphids for assessing susceptibility of aphids in mustard varieties under different water stress condition likely 100% field capacity (control), 50% field capacity (moderate drought) and 30% field capacity (severe drought). Aphid feeding and honeydew secretion were remarkably negatively affected by water stress. Weight of honeydew secreted by a mustard aphid during 24 hrs was reduced by 13% and 25% when subjected to moderate and extreme drought respectively compared to that at non-stressed control. The weight of honeydew secreted by a mustard aphid in 24 hrs in the varieties of Brassica campestris, B. napus and B. juncea was measured ranging 7.65 to 8.85 mg; 4.81 to 5.15 mg and 8.87 to 9.17 mg, respectively. It may be concluded that feeding performance of aphid and honeydew secretion were more in susceptible varieties and negatively affected by water stress. The varieties of B. napus are more resistant to aphid infestation.

Keywords: Aphid infestation, honeydew, mustard, drought stress


Genetic diversity analysis of rice landraces (Oryza sativa L.) for salt tolerance using SSR markers in Bangladesh

Md Mamunur Rashid, Shahin Imran, Md Ashraful Islam, Lutful Hassan

>>doi: 10.5455/faa.298103       >>PP: 460-466


Large cultivable area lies in the costal saline zone of Bangladesh where rice cultivation is largely affected by the salinity. This problem can be effectively addressed by identifying salt-tolerant landraces using modern biotechnolog- ical method. Assessment of genetic diversity of rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important tool for rice breeding and an essential component in germplasm characterization and conservation. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity among 7 landraces along with 3 released variety of rice using SSR marker. A total of 31 reproducible polymorphic alleles were identified from the loci with an average of 5.167 alleles per locus (ranges from 4–7). The polymorphism information content (PIC) value is a reflection of allelic diversity and frequency among the varieties. PIC value of each marker was evaluated on the basis of the number of alleles and it varied greatly for all the SSR loci tested. PIC values enumerated from the data obtained from allelic variation from 0.595 (RM8094) to 0.797 (AP3206) with an average of 0.697. The average genetic diversity over all SSR loci for the 10 genotypes was 0.740, ranging from 0.660 to 0.820. Positive correlations were found between gene diversity, PIC value and number of allele. These findings can have the potential role for further improvement of salinity tolerance rice genotypes through marker-assisted breeding.

Keywords: Rice, genetic diversity, salt tolerance, PIC, SSR


Development of composite biscuits supplementing with potato or corn flour

Pabitra Chandra Das, Md Suman Rana, Md Saifullah, Md Nazrul Islam

>>doi: 10.5455/faa.292438       >>PP: 443-459


The study was conducted to utilize the potato flour (PF) and corn flour (CF) for the preparation of biscuits with other necessary ingredients. The wheat flour (WF) was supplemented by the PF or CF with the amount of 10, 15 and 20%. The chemical analysis in wet weight basis (wb) showed that WF contained the highest amount of moisture (14.37%) and protein (11.46%), while PF had the highest ash (2.3%) and carbohydrate (81.3%) content among three flours. But, CF gave the highest fat content of 3.62% and energy of 370.1 Kcal/100 g. Physical characteristics of developed biscuits varied due to supplementation of PF or CF to WF. Chemical analysis showed that the control biscuits having 100% WF had the highest moisture content (4.91%), while the highest ash content (1.09%) was found in the sample containing 20% PF and 80% WF. The fat content increased and the protein content decreased with the increasing of PF or CF percentage. Sensory analysis of biscuits revealed that supplementation with 15% PF or CF achieved the best consumer acceptance.

Keywords: Biscuit, supplementation, potato flour, corn flour, wheat flour


Development of probiotic milk drinks using probiotic strain isolated from local yogurt

Md Ahmadul Islam, Farzana Akter, Mohammad Gulzarul Aziz, M Burhan Uddin

>>doi: 10.5455/faa.290338       >>PP: 446-452


Two Lactobacillus spp. were isolated from four yogurt samples, which were identified on the basis of their colony morphologies grown on MRS (Man, Rogosa and Sharpe) media and on the basis of biochemical tests conducted in the laboratory. Based on biochemical characteristics and further screen, these two isolates were selected for probiotic screening and further study. Gram staining, Catalase test, Oxidase test, Sugar fermentation, Bile salt test, NaCl tolerance test and pH tolerance test were done in this regard. Based on the OD (Optical Density), it was evident that all isolates can grow from bile salt concentration 0.05% to 0.25% and pH 2.5 to pH 5.5, can be used as probiotic. For NaCl tolerance test, two isolates showed slight decrease of growth during 1% to 4% NaCl supplementation. After isolation of probiotic strain from yogurt, these strains were used for the development of probiotic milk drinks. These drinks were developed where one was controlled and other two were mixed with different concentration of fruit (mango juice). The analysis of probiotic milk drinks showed the highest fat content was 4.50%, protein content 3.99%, ash content 1.90%, acidity 0.78%. Storage studies were carried out for fifteen days at refrigeration temperature (5 ±10 ◦ C) and samples were taken at an interval of three days. After 15 days acidity ranged between 0.91 to 0.95% and the counts of Isolate 1 and Isolate 2 ranged between 8.75 ∼9.55 log cfu/ml those were >5 log cfu/ml which makes probiotic milk drinks as health product. The sensory scores of the 10% mango juice mixed with probiotic milk drinks was significantly higher than that of the 5% (p <0.05) and the liking score ranged in the medium-like.

Keywords: Lactic acid bacteria, probiotic, milk drinks, yogurt, mango juice


Processing of mixed fruit juice from mango, orange and pineapple

Sajeda Begum, Pabitra Chandra Das, Poly Karmoker

>>doi: 10.5455/faa.289995            >>PP: 440-445


The study was conducted to prepare mixed fruit juice by using mango, pineapple and orange juices. Fully ripen raw mango, pineapple and orange were processed into pulp/juice forms which were analyzed for their composition and consequently processed into mixed fruit juices with a combination of different percentage of mango pulp, pineapple and orange juice. Chemical composition, keeping quality, shelf life and consumers’ acceptability of the products were investigated. Chemical analysis showed that TSS, acidity were increased slightly whereas vitamin C and pH were decreased gradually during the storage periods. Storage studies were carried out up to one month with an interval of one week and the result showed that all the samples were in good condition after one month, though little bit of faded color was found at the end of storage periods. Sample with 35% mango juice, 40% orange juice and 25% pineapple secured the highest score on sensory evaluation and showed the best consumer acceptance. This research reveals that perishable fruits can be converted to attractive mixed juice and thus increase the shelf-life, which increase value of the product.

Keywords: Mixed fruit juice, sensory evaluation, storage


Effect of different levels of sugar on qualitative characteristics of lassi prepared from sour dahi

Muhammad Shah Moazzem, Md Nurul Islam, AKM Masum, Md Rezwanul Habib

>>doi: 10.5455/faa.286429        >>PP: 434-439


An investigation was carried out to develop lassi from sour dahi using different levels of sugar (10, 15, 20 and 25%) and 15% water. Lassi quality was assayed through the study of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. Results revealed that significant difference existed in overall physical score of lassi samples and the highest score was found in 15% sugar lassi whereas, the lowest score was found in 25% sugar lassi. Total solids, carbohydrate, fat, protein and ash contents differed significantly among various levels of sugar added lassi. From chemical test, it appears that, 15% sugar added lassi possess the highest fat and protein values whereas, the highest total solids and carbohydrate values posses in 25% sugar added lassi. No significant difference (p >0.05) revealed in terms of pH value and acidity percentage among lassi types. Lassi made from 10% sugar was most inferior than other levels of sugar added lassi in respect of microbiological qualitytotal viable count (×104 cfu/mL) content was 95.67 ±2.08 and coliform (×10 cfu/mL) content was 1.00 ±0.00. Considering above mentioned quality aspects, it might be resolved that lassi could be prepared successfully from sour dahi with 15% sugar keeping water level constant at 15%.

Keywords: Dahi, sugar, lassi, physical, chemical and microbiological


Effects of plant extracts on controlling wheat blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae Pathotype triticum in Bangladesh

Fatema-Tuz-Zohura, Md Abul Kashem, Md Al-Imran Hasan, Muhammed Ali Hossain

>>doi: 10.5455/faa.293640         >>PP: 422-433


The present research work was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of twelve plant extracts viz. Neem (Azadirachta indica), Bishkatali(Polygonum hydropiper), Nishinda (Vitex negundu), Allamonda (Allamanda cathertica), Acasia (Acacia auriculiformis), Tulsi (Ocientific tenuiflorum), Mehendi (Lmetawsonia alba), Datura (Datura metel), Bishkochu (Alocasia fornicate), Black cumin (Nigella sativa), Garlic (Allium sativum), Mehogoni (Swietenia macrophylla) @ 1:10 along with two fungicides Provax(Provaxaltonin) and Nativo (Trifloxystrobin+Tebuconazole) @ 0.2% as check against Magnaporthe oryzae Pathotype triticum (MoT) which is responsible for wheat blast disease at Department of Plant Pathology, Bangladesh Agricultural University and Plant Pathology Division, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture. In the laboratory experiment, the efficacies of plant extracts were evaluated by the measurement of percent inhibition of radial mycelial growth of MoT. The highest percentage of mycelial inhibition (93.75%) was recorded in case of four plant extracts namely Tulsi, Mehendi, Datura and Garlic followed by Black cumin seed extracts (90%) at 10 days after inoculation, where as Allamonda leaf extract showed lowest percentage of mycelial growth inhibition (7.5%). In in vitro test, minimum percentage of disease incidence and severity were recorded in case of Garlic clove extract (16.28% and 3.5%) treated plants and the Mehendi leaf extract treated plants showed highest percent of disease incidence and severity (66.0% and 68.0%). Garlic clove extracts also showed best performance for yield contributing parameters namely ear length (9.20 cm), number of ear/pot (13.25), number of healthy ear/pot (13.0), number of total and healthy spikelets/ear (34.20 and 33.40), number of total and healthy grains/ear (23.00 and 21.80) and weight of 1000 total and healthy grains/pot (56 and 52 g) followed by Black cumin, whereas Mehendi leaf extract treated plants showed lowest value for all the yield contributing parameters. Both in in vito and pot experiment Garlic extract showed best performance and it might be used for the eco-friendly management of blast disease and increase the yield of wheat.

Keywords: Wheat blast, Magnapothe ozyzae, Plant extract, Efficacy, Bangladesh


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