[These are Peer-reviewed, Revised and Accepted articles, but not yet assigned to an issue]
Assessing the diversity of insect pests of grain legumes using different types of light traps
Bishnu Prasad Neupane 1, Sunil Aryal 1, Jiban Shrestha 2
1Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Entomology Research Centre, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, NEPAL
2Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Plant Breeding and Genetics Research Centre, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, NEPAL
A set of three types of light traps namely black light at rooftop, black light above ground, and normal light above ground were installed at five places of the open grain legumes cropping area of Grain Legumes Research Program, Khajura, Banke, Nepal from January to December, 2017 for evaluating comparative efficacy of light trap on monitoring the abundance, diversity and population trends of important insects with elevation and prevailing weather conditions. Black light trap was found more effective for monitoring vague diversity of insect species and their abundance than ordinary light trap. Placing black light trap at higher elevation further increased its efficiency to attract many species of night flying adult population (1419 adults comprising of 35 species) as compared to the same trap placed above ground level (766 adults with 35 species) and ordinary trap placed above ground level (701 adults with 33 species). Higher number of insect species (31) were captured in black light trap placed at higher elevation in spring night followed by clear night (22), rainy/cloudy night (10) and winter night (5), respectively. This indicates the abundance of insect population is higher in spring and reaching to few numbers in winter season. As the environment and cropping system is changing, continuous monitoring of insects is required to have their better estimates and information in advance for their management.
Keywords: Abundance, diversity, insect population, monitoring
Bioactive compounds in tomato and their roles in disease prevention: A review
Kabita Kumari Shah 1, Bindu Modi 2, Bibek Lamsal 1, Jiban Shrestha 3, Surya Prasad Aryal 4
1 Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Gokuleshwor College, Tribhuvan University, Baitadi, NEPAL
2 Central Department of Chemistry, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, NEPAL
3 Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Plant Breeding and Genetics Research Centre, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, NEPAL
4 University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA
Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) has long been valued not only for its culinary and organoleptic characteristic but also for its nutritional and health benefits. Tomato fruit has emerged from many notable medical research ventures as a source of antioxidant compounds, which are important for human metabolism in the world. Lycopene is one of the main naturally, and abundantly occurring antioxidants in tomato. As an antioxidant lycopene is responsible for lowering the risk of various chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases etc. Tomato fruit consumption can be associated with various beneficial effects on health. Tomato is an important source of bioactive compounds, having vitamin antioxidants and anticancer substances. A group of vitamins, carotenoids, phenolic compounds, antioxidant metabolites, and significant compounds (glutathione, carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, tomatines, and polyphenols) are found in tomato. These compounds can provide effective protection by neutralizing free radicals and these unstable molecules associated with the growth of a range of degenerative diseases and conditions. This review article summarizes the pharmacological actions of bioactive compounds (carotenoids, lycopene, β –carotene, lutein, and vitamins) and their chemistry. This reviewed information will potentially be valuable source for people ranging from nutritionists and health workers to tomato growers.
Keywords: Antioxidant, Bioactive compounds, Carotenoids, Lycopene, Pharmacology, Tomato
A cost efficiency analysis of boro rice production in Dinajpur district of Bangladesh
Md Shajedur Rahaman1, Sadika Haque2, Md Abdur Rouf Sarkar1, Chhiddikur Rahman1, Md Salim Reza2, Mohammad Ariful Islam1, Md Abu Bakr Siddique1
1Agricultural Economics Division, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur-1701, Bangladesh.
2Department of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Economics Rural Sociology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh
The size of the farm is an important factor that reflects the efficient utilization of resources in farming. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate how the farm size affects the cost efficiency of rice production during the Boro season in Bangladesh. In particular, the analysis aims to estimate the concentration of cost efficiency among the 240 small, medium, and large Boro rice growers sampled in the Dinajpur district. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the socioeconomic characteristics of rice farmers. A Cobb-Douglas type stochastic cost frontier model was employed to figure out how the rice farmers are cost-efficient. The sociodemographic factors that affect efficient investment in rice production also have been identified. The results of the study show a broad range of cost efficiency scores between 56.65 to 96.40% for the worse to the best rice-growing farmer, respectively with an average efficiency of 84.01%. The findings also show that the mean cost efficiency level of small, medium, and large farmers was 83.30, 85.58, and 94.43%, respectively. The land rental fees, human labor wages, irrigation prices, and pesticide prices are the key factors that contribute to the productivity of rice cultivation. The relatively higher level of cost efficiency among large farmers obviously demonstrates the notion that only large farmers in the study region are investing efficiently in rice growing. Irrespective of the farm size, the cost efficiency drivers found out that more efficient were the farmers who had more experience in farming, obtained training on rice production techniques, and better access to institutional credit. It is therefore recommended that rice farmers should be well trained, provided credit access along with developing rural set-up, and also provide extension services in order to increase the cost efficiency levels in Boro season.
Keywords: Cost effective, rice, farm size, stochastic frontier analysis, Bangladesh
Effects of disinfectants on bacterial load in a commercial fish hatchery in Mymensingh
Md Ali Reza Faruk1, Fariaz Islam2, Ishrat Zahan Anka3
1 Department of Aquaculture, Bangladesh Agricultural Universality, Mymensingh-2202, BANGLADESH.
2 Alltech Bangladesh, Uttara, Dhaka, BANGLADESH.
3 Department of Aquaculture, Chattogram Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chattogram -4225, BANGLADESH
The study was conducted to investigate the effects of four chemical disinfectants viz., salt (NaCl), lime, formalin and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) on bacterial loads in water, eggs and fries in a commercial fish hatchery at Trishal upazila in Mymensingh district. Sampling was done in every10 days interval for each month from March to May 2016. Hatching trays (12″x7″) were disinfected using 40 ppm salt water and 20 ppm potassium permanganate. Cisterns (84 ft2 each) were washed and disinfected with combination of lime (5 g/ft2) and salt (30 g/ft2) followed by application of potassium permanganate (1 ppm) and formalin (0.25 ppm). After disinfecting, bacterial load in hatching tray water reduced immediately than that of overhead tank water. Bacterial load was determined using serial dilution technique and expressed as colony forming unit (cfu/ml). The average highest bacterial load in overhead tank water was 4.89±1.71×107cfu/ml while the highest load in hatching tray water was 3.30±3.54×106 cfu/ml. The bacterial load of cistern water (1.43±0.75×103 cfu/ml) decreased compared to tank water and gradually increased after six days of giving hormone treated feed. To prevent infection of eggs saline water was applied and lower bacterial load of 4.25±2.67×102 cfu/ml was observed. The study revealed that use of chemical disinfectants in the initial stages of hatchery operation can decrease the bacterial load and thus reduces the chance of infection and diseases of eggs and fry.
Keywords: Disinfectants, tilapia, hatchery, bacterial load