Food security and livelihood of tribal people in Bangladesh: The role of microfinance
Authors: Mohammad Ataur Rahman, Shukdeb Paul, Jiban Krishna Saha
Accepted Manuscript, Available online 05 May 2019
Microfinance is being considered as one of the most effective tools of improving the food security and the livelihood. The present study was conducted to analyze the loan profiles, the impact of credit on the livelihood and food security level of the tribal households. The primary data were collected from randomly selected sixty women beneficiaries through the interview schedule in Khagrachari district of Bangladesh. Tabular analysis along with a DFID livelihood framework was used for data analysis. To assess the calorie intake level, seven days consumption data were converted to per person per day calorie intake level. The study showed that the beneficiaries received required amount of loan for different purposes such as petty business, dairy, agribusiness, trading of handicraft, fishery, etc., and they invested their loan money in the productive activities mostly. The loan recovery rate was highly satisfactory. The study also discovered that the assets possession of the households improved after utilizing the loan. The calorie intake level of the sample household members indicated around two-third members were food unsecured. As microfinance showed a positive impact on livelihood; different financial institutions, NGOs, private companies and local and foreign donor agencies should come forward to offer financial help to the tribal community to improve their livelihoods and food security.
Keywords: Food Security, Livelihood, Tribal People, Microfinance, Bangladesh
 Changes in biochemical and microbiological parameters of Mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) fish pickle during storage at room temperature
Authors: Shikha Fatema Hoque, Hossain Md Ismail, Shohan Sanjida
Accepted Manuscript, Available online 05 May 2019
Among small indigenous species (SIS) of fishes Mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) has high nutritive value. Beside traditional curry preparation it is necessary to make available this highly nutritive fish in other “ready to eat” forms and also adding value to this fish. Therefore, this study was carried out to prepare fish pickle with Mola and to observe the changes in biochemical parameters and bacterial load of this pickle stored at room temperature (28°C to 32°C). The study was conducted in the Department of Fisheries Technology Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University. The results of the study showed that, the percent moisture and protein content decreased while lipid and ash content increased after preparation of pickle than those of fresh fishes. The fish pickle stored at room temperature (28°C to 32°C) in sealed and vacuum sealed packing conditions, the percent moisture, protein and lipid content decreased with the progress in storage period gradually but ash content increased. At this temperature (at both sealed and vacuum sealed pack), pH value of the pickle decreased very slowly but the TVB-N value and bacterial load increased gradually throughout the storage period. So, it was concluded that, at room temperature (28°C to 32°C) shelf life of Mola fish pickle was short, pickle may remain in acceptable condition until 12 days in sealed pack and 30 days in vacuum sealed pack.
Keywords: Fish pickle, Amblypharyngodon mola, biochemical parameters, bacterial load, room temperature storage
 Pre-storage calcium salts treatment maintained postharvest quality and bioactive compounds of fresh jujube fruit
Authors: Farid Moradinezhad, Mehdi Ghesmati, Mehdi Khayat
Accepted Manuscript, Available online 23 May 2019
Jujube fruit is quickly damaged and it has a short shelf life in ambient temperature mainly due to senescence and flesh browning. The effects of postharvest calcium salts on quality attributes and physico-chemical characteristics of fresh jujube fruit were investigated with four replications. Fresh jujube fruits at crisp mature (whitish red) stage were picked from a local commercial jujube orchard during early in August in Birjand. Uniform fruits were then selected and immersed in solutions of different calcium sources (calcium chloride, calcium nitrate and calcium sulfate) at two concentrations (0.5 and 1%) or distilled water as control for 5 minutes, air-dried and then stored in cold storage for 50 days. The physico-chemical and sensory quality attributes of fresh fruit were evaluated at the end of storage time. The results showed that weight loss and pH was not influenced by the calcium salt solutions, whereas immersion of jujube fruits in different concentrations of calcium salts had a significant effect on the firmness of the fruit tissue. Calcium salts treatment significantly reduced fruit decay and shrinkage. In addition, postharvest dipping in calcium chloride and calcium nitrate solutions preserved nutritional value (ascorbic acid and total phenolic content) and maintained the sensory quality of fresh jujube fruit. Postharvest calcium salts application preserved the bioactive compounds, quality and improve the overall acceptability of jujube fruit, especially at a concentration of 1% of both salts. However, to determine the proper concentration of calcium salts and the time of dipping treatment for practical applications further studies are required.
Keywords: Ascorbic acid, calcium chloride, calcium nitrate, calcium sulfate, post-harvest dipping
 Assessing groundwater suitability for irrigation: a case study for Durgapur upazila, Netrokona, Bangladesh
Authors: Nilima Das, Mohammed Mizanur Rahman, Md Touhidul Islam, A K M Adham
Accepted Manuscript, Available online 24 May 2019
A study was carried out to evaluate the quality of groundwater and its suitability for irrigation in Durgapur upazila under Netrokona district of Bangladesh. Fifteen groundwater samples were collected from different tubewells and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), major cations like Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ and anions like Cl–, SO42-, PO43-, CO32-, HCO3–. Based on these analyses, irrigation water quality parameters like sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), soluble sodium percentage (SSP), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), total hardness (TH), Kelly’s ratio (KR), permeability index (PI), potential salinity (PS) and salinity and alkalinity hazard were calculated. ArcGIS software was used to show the spatial distribution of different quality parameters across the study area. The groundwater of the study area was mildly acidic. Acidic water was observed in the north-eastern part of the study area. All the groundwater samples were found to be suitable for the irrigation in terms of EC, TDS, SAR, SSP, RSC, TH, KR, PI and PS, and whereas in terms of MAR, 5 samples were in ‘dangerous’ category. High MAR values of groundwater were observed in the north‑western part of the study area. However, in terms of salinity and alkalinity hazard, all of the water samples were categorized as ‘good to excellent’ class for irrigation. Piper diagram showed that Ca2+-Cl– type water was the dominant form of groundwater in the study area. Gibbs diagram indicated that most of the cations and anions had a precipitation dominance origin. Overall for the groundwater samples, PI-PS and SSP–KR had a very strong correlation with a correlation coefficient around 1, and whereas, Ca, Mg, K and MAR showed a negative correlation with most of the variables. The study revealed that the quality of the groundwater of the study area is suitable for irrigation.
Keywords: Groundwater, physico-chemical properties, spatial distribution, irrigation