Fundamental and Applied Agriculture
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Accepted Articles


[1] Sex Expression in Papaya: Morphological Marker, Molecular Genetics and Environments

Authors: F Mustafa Era, A K M Aminul Islam

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5455/faa.48652

Accepted Manuscript, Available online 13 July 2019

Abstract

The objective of the present study is to review different aspects of sex expression in papaya and the findings of the present study may help in papaya breeding. Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a polygamous species and the plants are extremely diverse in their sexual systems. Three sex types are available in papaya viz., male, female and hermaphrodite and are controlled by a single gene with three alleles (m, M1, M2). The genotypes represent gynoecious, androecious and hermaphrodite individuals. Ninety percent of freshly dispersed pollen grains were viable in summer but viability dropped to about 45% in some lines and as low as 4.5% in others in winter. The extremes of humidity reduce the storage life of papaya pollen but under ideal (artificial) storage conditions it potentially remains viable for about 5-6 years. The stigma attained receptive two days before anthesis and continued up to five days after anthesis but began to decline gradually upto five days after anthesis. Papaya plants produce fruit either through cross-pollination or self-pollination or parthenocarpy depending on their sex types. On an average 1,000 seeds are found in a single fruit, indicating that 1,000 viable pollen grains may fertilized receptive stigma. The sex types in papaya is found to be related with several morphological characters such as seed coat colour, root morphology etc. Seed coat color, petiole thickness, stems color worked as a morphological marker for sex determination in papaya. The black and dark brown seed coat color exhibited higher frequency of the female and hermaphrodite plants. The range of 54-60° petiole orientation, 3.7-4.2 cm petiole thickness and 9.4-10.4cm petiole length gave higher percentage of female and hermaphrodite plants. On the other hand, unique purple stem color was reported to express as hermaphrodite plants. In case of chemical identification of sex in papaya Almen reagent test, Ammonium molybdite test, Titanous chloride test gave 71%, 60% and 55% accuracy of femaleness respectively. Ethrel gave the most expected number (46.67%) but excessive Ethrel may also cause higher number of male. In Case of Kinetin and IBB 100ppm and 200 ppm gave higher percentage of female. Environment may also affect the sex expression of papya. In along with these, several molecular may also be used to identify the sex type of papaya. Among them SSR and RAPD is mostly familiar and successful.

Keywords: Carica papaya; polygamous; gynodioecious; hermaphrodite; pistillode; sexual lability.

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[2] Changes in organoleptic and biochemical parameters of three commercially important marine fish species of Bay of Bengal during ice storage

Authors: Fatema Hoque Shikha, Md Ismail Hossain, Riton Ghosh

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5455/faa.43754

Accepted Manuscript, Available online 26 July 2019

Abstract

The study was conducted to observe the changes in organoleptic and biochemical parameters of three marine fish species of Bay of Bengal during ice storage. The fish species, namely, Bombay duck (Harpadon nehereus), silver jewfish (Johnius argentatus) and ribbon fish (Trichiurus haumela) were collected from the landing center of Cox’s Bazar, frozen to bring them to Mymensingh. Then the fish samples were stored in ice for about 9 days by applying fresh flake ice to the fishes at certain intervals. During the storage period, at every two days interval, required amount of fish samples were taken out from the ice box to collect data on changes in organoleptic and biochemical parameters (e.g., analysis of proximate composition, TVB-N and pH). During ice storage, the overall organoleptic qualities of all fish samples were in acceptable condition up to 9 days. The fish samples stored in ice exhibited excellent quality on the basis of physical characteristics until 3rd day of storage. Biochemical analyses revealed that the percent moisture content of Bombay duck, silver jewfish and ribbon fish increased with the lapse of storage period whereas the percent protein content decreased with the progress in storage period, lipid content also decreased gradually in the same samples but the percent ash content of the samples changed very little. The values for total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) of the three fish samples increased slightly during the storage period. The pH value of the fish samples also increased throughout the storage. So, the present study can be concluded that the organoleptic characteristics and biochemical parameters of above mentioned fish changes during ice storage of 9 days but found acceptable for human consumption.

Keywords: Organoleptic quality, biochemical parameters, marine fish species, ice storage

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[3] Effects of probiotic supplementation on the growth performance of Thai silver barb (Barbonymus gonionotus) (bleeker, 1850) fry

Authors: Debashis Kumar Mondal, Tanvir Rahman, Sagar Paul, Md Jakiul Islam, Idris Miah

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5455/faa.47150

Accepted Manuscript, Available online 26 July 2019

Abstract
With the intensification of aquacuture, development of drug-resistant pathogens due to indiscriminate use of antibiotic is a growing concern. To combat this challenge combining with the high price of the commercial pelleted feeds with limited efficiency for fish growth and maintaining good water quality an alternative approach using probiotics in aquaculture is gaining more acceptances in recent years. A six-week long feeding trial was performed with fifteen rectangular glass aquaria (35 L capacity) containing 180 fish (average weight 1.02 ± 0.3 g) to evaluate the effects of probiotic supplementation on the growth performance of Thai silver barb, Barbonymus gonionotus fry. The fry were fed twice-a-day at 8-10 % of their body weight. Three available commercial probiotics were added with commercial crumbled feed in three forms; i) feed + 3% ‘Biofav aqua’ (T1), ii) feed + 3% ‘NavioPlus’ (T2), iii) feed + 3% ‘Eskalina’ (T3), whereas, water additive probiotic ‘ARIAKE3’ (T4) was added directly to water and feed without probiotics was control (T5). Results revealed that water quality parameters were best in T4 compared to others. Net weight gain (3.46 g), percent weight gain (361.67%), (SGR) (3.63%) and survival (100%) were significantly higher (P<0.01) in T4. FCR (2.06) (P<0.05) and PER (1.34) (P<0.01) were significantly lowest but FCE (0.48) was significantly (P<0.05) highest in T2 compared to others. Control showed lower growth and feed utilization efficiency compared to probiotics supplemented treatments. Whole body protein, lipid and carbohydrate content were also found highest in T4. In the present study, the addition of probiotics in the regular diets significantly increased the growth and survivability of this commercially important fish. However, considering the growth, food efficiency and the water quality index, the water additive probiotic showed more beneficial effects for the monoculture of the selected fish which may be used in commercial farming for better growth performance of B. gonionotus.

Keywords: Organoleptic quality, biochemical parameters, marine fish species, ice storage

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